Slavery and Islam




2 Votes


O mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, so that you may come to know one another. Truly, the most honored of you in God’s sight is the greatest of you in piety. God is All-Knowing, All-Aware. — Quran (49:13)

Prophet Muhammad, 570–632 AD

. . . yield obedience to my successor, although he may be an Abyssinian slave.

He will not enter paradise who behaveth ill to his slaves. The companions said, “O Apostle of God! Have you not told us, that there will be a great many slaves and orphans amongst your disciples?” He said, “Yes; then be kind to them as your own children, and give them to eat of what you eat yourselves. The slaves that say their prayers are your brothers.”

[The first call to prayer at the Quba mosque built by Prophet Muhammad was given in 622 by Bilal — a black slave freed by the Prophet. The Supreme Court of the United States declared in 1857 that the slave Dred Scott could not sue for his freedom because he was not a person, but property.] 
Roger Du Pasquier, Unveiling Islam

To answer this question, it should first be remarked that Islam has tolerated slavery but has never approved of it, and that all its teachings and prescriptions in this regard lead to its alleviation as far as possible in the short term, and, in the longer term, conduce to its progressive suppression. To abolish it would have been impossible in a world in which it was generally practiced by all the states which bordered on the new Muslim empire, and in which the idea of challenging the principle itself had not occurred to anyone. It was the custom to enslave prisoners of war — when these were not simply massacred — and the Islamic state would have put itself at a grave disadvantage vis-a-vis its enemies had it not reciprocated to some extent. By guaranteeing them humane treatment, and various possibilities of subsequently releasing themselves, it ensured that a good number of combatants in the opposing armies preferred captivity at the hands of Muslims to death on the field of battle.

   Australia, until 1960s, Aborigines came under the Flora And Fauna Act, classified them as animals, not human beings. #BritishEmpite ‪#‎whitesupremacy‬ ‪#‎racism‬ ‪#‎Australia‬ ‪#‎zkblast‬   

Australia, until 1960s, Aborigines came under the Flora And Fauna Act, classified them as animals, not human beings. 

It should be very clearly underlined that the slavery once practiced in the Muslim world cannot be compared to the form it had assumed for instance In the Roman Empire. 

Islamic legislation subjected slaveowners to a set of precise obligations, first among which was the slave’s right to life, for, according to a hadith, 

‘Whoever kills his slave shall be killed by us’. 

In consequence, the murder of a slave was punished like that of a free man.

A slave and scholar, Omar Ibn Said led an exceptional life 

By Michael Futch, The Fayetteville Observer, N.C. McClatchy-Tribune Regional News Fayetteville Observer (MCT) October 30, 2010

There are many other hadiths which define Islam’s true attitude in this regard. The Prophet said: 


‘Your slaves are your brethren; therefore whoever has a brother who depends upon him must feed and clothe him in the way he feeds and clothes himself; and should not impose upon him tasks which exceed his capacity; should you ask them to do such things, then you are obliged to help them.’ 

The Sharia takes this injunction, among many others, into account when defining the responsibilities and duties of slaveholders.

There is another teaching which enjoins respect for the human dignity of slaves: ‘Let none of you say, “This man, or this woman, is my slave”. He must rather say: “This is my man, and this my woman.”‘ Putting into relief the provisional character of social ties and the authority exercised by slaveowners over their slaves, the Prophet said: ‘It is true that God has made you their masters, but, had He so wished, He could equally well have made you their slaves.


A prince among the slaves Adbul Rahman Ibrahima Sori (1762-1829) 

A West African Prince from the Kingdom of Futa Jallon (in the present-day Republic of Guinea) who was sold into slavery in 1788. He spent 40 years as a slave in Natchez, Mississippi before being freed and leaving for Liberia with his wife in January 1829. His stroy has been made into a film.



To manumit a slave has always been regarded as one of the most meritorious of all acts, and many passages of the Qur’an recommend or even require it, particularly as a means of expiation for serious faults. Traditional legislation lays down the methods of voluntary liberation of slaves by their masters (itq), and there were very many Muslims who observed these, especially at the end of their lives, so as not to die and appear before God without having given full freedom to the human beings placed in their power during their earthly lives.

Additionally, slaves had the ability to enfranchise themselves at their own initiative, without waiting passively for the goodwill of their masters: the procedure known as mukataba allowed them to buy their own freedom with sums which they saved from their work, and which the state frequently augmented with advances — a measure which the slaveowner had no right to oppose. In contrast to the situation under Roman law, slaves were not deprived of the legal ability to exercise their rights and to appeal to a judge against their masters in all cases of illegal treatment.

Besides domestic slavery, which was generally imbued with a patriarchal character, there also existed a form of military slavery, which was frequently employed by princes in need of recruits, especially for their personal guards. This situation had the effect of conferring an often considerable influence and power on men of servile condition or origin, and some of these became the founders of great and illustrious dynasties such as the Tulunids and Mamlukes of Egypt.

When a black muslim met a white Muslim for the first time 

The object of a prosperous commercial sector, which under the Abbasid Empire was often the speciality of non-Muslims, particularly Byzantine and Venetian Christians, and Jews, slavery gradually declined in importance until, at the beginning of the present century, it was confined to a few survivals which have now disappeared entirely. Thanks to the strict traditional controls which have always regulated the practice, it would be difficult to deny that social conditions were remarkably humane during the great periods of Muslim civilization, and that these, moreover, were in conformity with the ‘egalitarian’ spirit of Islam, which, in a hadith, teaches that ‘the blackest of Abyssinians’ is superior to most noble of Quraishites, if he has more faith. — p. 104 – 107 David Hecht, ‘Slavery’ African Style


Richest man to ever have walk this earth till this day was a black Muslim king Mansa Musa IMG_2336

Martin Jacques, When China Rules the World

It has been estimated that the slave trade may have reduced Africa’s population by up to a half as a result of the forcible export of people combined with deaths on the continent itself. — p. 41

Ali A. Mazrui, ‘Islamo-Fascism,’ Western Hegemony and Cross-Cultural Violence

While Islam has been relatively resistant to racism, genocide, and the equivalent of the Inquisition, it has been more ambivalent about slavery. Muslims have both owned and traded in slaves across the centuries. But slavery among Muslims has been almost race-neutral. Slaves could be white, black, brown or other. So could masters. This is in contrast to the trans-Atlantic slave-system which was racially polarized: white masters-black slaves.

Second, slavery in Muslim history allowed for high upward social mobility. Both Muslim Egypt and Muslim India produced slave dynasties.

Howard Zinn, Declarations of Independence

The idea that entered Western consciousness several centuries ago, that black people are less than human, made possible the Atlantic slave trade, during which perhaps 40 million people died. — p. 1

Sayyid Sa’eed Akhtar Rizvi, Slavery From Islamic and Christian Perspectives

Among all the religions it was only Islam that attacked the very foundations of this evil. — preface

Sylviane A. Diouf, Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas

Author asserts that Islam was the first revealed religion followed by African slaves, and describes their struggle in upholding Islamic practices.

ആര്‍എസ്എസ് ഇന്ത്യയിലെ ഏറ്റവും വലിയ ഭീകര സംഘടന

ആര്‍എസ്എസ് ഇന്ത്യയിലെ ഏറ്റവും വലിയ ഭീകര സംഘടന; ആര് അധികാരത്തിലെത്തിയാലും തകര്‍ക്കാന്‍ പറ്റാത്ത ബ്രാമണിക് വ്യവസ്ഥയാണ് ഐബിയടക്കമുള്ള സ്ഥാപനങ്ങളില്‍ ആര്‍എസ്എസിനുള്ളത്


RSS_0_0_0 ആര്‍എസ്എസിനെതിരെ മുന്‍ മുംബൈ പൊലീസ് ഐജി .ആര്‍എസ്എസ് ഇന്ത്യയിലെ ഏറ്റവും വലിയ ഭീകര സംഘടനയാണെന്ന് മുന്‍  ഐജി എസ്എം മുശിരിഫ്. ആര്‍ഡിഎക്സ് ഉപയോഗിച്ചുള്ള 13 സ്ഫോടനക്കേസുകളിലെങ്കിലും ആര്‍എസ്എസ് പ്രവര്‍ത്തകര്‍ പ്രതികളാണ്. ബിജെപി ഭരണത്തിലുണ്ടായാലും ഇല്ലെങ്കിലും ഐബിയിലടക്കമുള്ള ആര്‍എസ്എസ് സ്വാധീനത്തിന് ഒരു കുറവും ഉണ്ടാകില്ലെന്നും അദ്ദേഹം പറഞ്ഞു. കൊല്‍ക്കത്തയില്‍ ഹേമന്ദ് കാര്‍ക്കരെ അനുസ്മരണ പരിപാടിയില്‍ പങ്കെടുത്ത് സംസാരിക്കുകയായിരുന്നു എസ്എം മുശിരിഫ്.

ഭീകരവാദക്കേസുകളിലെ ഹിന്ദുത്വ സംഘടനകളുടെ പങ്കിനെക്കുറിച്ചുള്ള നിര്‍ണ്ണായക വിവരങ്ങള്‍ പുറത്ത് കൊണ്ട് വന്ന മുംബൈ ഭീകരവിരുദ്ധ സ്ക്വാഡ് മുന്‍ തലവന്‍ ഹേമന്ദ് കാര്‍ക്കരെയുടെ സഹപ്രവര്‍ത്തകനായിരുന്നു  മുശിരിഫ്. 2011 നവംബര്‍ 26ലെ മുംബൈ ഭീകരാക്രണത്തിനിടെ ഹേമന്ദ് കാര്‍ക്കരെ കൊല്ലപ്പെട്ടതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട ദുരൂഹതകളെ സംബന്ധിച്ച് സംസാരിക്കവേയാണ് അദ്ദേഹം ആര്‍എസ്എസിന്റെ ഭീകരാക്രമണക്കേസുകളിലെ പങ്കിനെക്കുറിച്ച് പറഞ്ഞത്. ഇതില്‍ ബജ്റംഗ്ദള്‍ പ്രവര്‍ത്തകര്‍ ഉള്‍പ്പെട്ട കേസുകള്‍ കൂടി കൂട്ടിച്ചേര്‍ത്താല്‍ കേസുകളുടെ പതിനേഴാകും.

അതിനാല്‍ ഇന്ത്യ കണ്ട ഏറ്റവും വലിയ ഭീകര സംഘടന ആര്‍എസ്എസ് ആണെന്ന് നിസ്സംശയം പറയാനാകും.  ആര് അധികാരത്തിലെത്തിയാലും തകര്‍ക്കാന്‍ പറ്റാത്ത ബ്രാമണിക് വ്യവസ്ഥയാണ് ഐബിയടക്കമുള്ള സ്ഥാപനങ്ങളില്‍ ഉള്ളത്. കാര്‍ക്കരെയുടെ കൊലപാതകത്തിന് പിന്നില്‍ ഐബിയുടെ ഇടപെടലിന് നിരവധി തെളിവുകളുണ്ടെന്നും എന്നാല്‍ അതൊക്കെ പുറത്ത് കൊണ്ട് വരാനുള്ള എല്ലാ ശ്രമങ്ങളും പരാജയപ്പെടുത്തപ്പെടുകയാണെന്നും അദ്ദേഹം പറഞ്ഞു.

എന്നാല്‍ സമകാലീന ഇന്ത്യയില്‍ അസഹിഷ്ണുത വര്‍ദ്ധിച്ചുവെന്ന വാദങ്ങളെ അദ്ദേഹ തള്ളി. അസഹിഷ്ണുത ഇതിന് മുന്പും ഇതിനേക്കാള്‍ ഭീകരമായി രാജ്യത്ത് നിലനിന്നിരുന്നുവെന്നും, ഇപ്പോള്‍ മാത്രം അത് ശ്രദ്ധിക്കപ്പെടുന്നത് എന്ത് കൊണ്ടാണെന്ന് മനസ്സിലാകുന്നില്ല എന്നും  മുശിരിഫ് കൂട്ടിച്ചേര്‍ത്തു.

Android Location, Address and Distance Tutorial with Example

Android Location, Address and Distance Tutorial with Example

In this application, first we will learn how to find the best location of the user. To know about location of any user, we have to find latitude and longitude of location. So create new project and drop four text view on relative layout and give id lng and lat to second and fourth text view respectively. The code of android XML file is given below:

Latitude and Longitude of current Location in Android
Latitude and Longitude of current Location in Android
<RelativeLayout xmlns:android=""
   android:background="#89b" >
   android:text="Longitude:" />
   android:textSize="30sp" />
   android:text="Latitude:" />
   android:textSize="30sp" />

Now open Java file and Location manager is used to get the location service. Find the best network provider in mobile and calculate the latitude and longitude of the location. The code of android Java file is given below with explanation:

package innosen.loc; //your package name

import android.location.Criteria;
import android.location.Location;
import android.location.LocationListener;
import android.location.LocationManager;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.content.Context;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class MainActivity extends Activity implements LocationListener{
  LocationManager lm;
  TextView lt, ln;
  String provider;
  Location l;
  protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
   //get location service
   Criteria c=new Criteria();
   //criteria object will select best service based on
   //Accuracy, power consumption, response, bearing and monetary cost
   //set false to use best service otherwise it will select the default Sim network
   //and give the location based on sim network 
   //now it will first check satellite than Internet than Sim network location
   provider=lm.getBestProvider(c, false);
   //now you have best provider
   //get location
     //get latitude and longitude of the location
     double lng=l.getLongitude();
     double lat=l.getLatitude();
     //display on text view
    ln.setText("No Provider");
    lt.setText("No Provider");
   //If you want location on changing place also than use below method
   //otherwise remove all below methods and don't implement location listener
   public void onLocationChanged(Location arg0)
    double lng=l.getLongitude();
    double lat=l.getLatitude();

  public void onProviderDisabled(String arg0) {
   // TODO Auto-generated method stub
  public void onProviderEnabled(String arg0) {
   // TODO Auto-generated method stub

  public void onStatusChanged(String arg0, int arg1, Bundle arg2) {
   // TODO Auto-generated method stub

Now open AndroidManifest.xml file and take permission to use location service and to find best location. The code of AndroidManifest.xml file is given below:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android=""
   android:versionName="1.0" >
   android:targetSdkVersion="10" />
   android:theme="@style/AppTheme" >
   android:label="@string/app_name" >
    <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />
    <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />

Now run your project and install .APK file in your mobile and use because if you run this application on emulator than you will not be able to find any location provider and Open your GPRS before getting Location point. If you have any doubts please comment. Share this post and help all android Developers.


I am just updating my previous post “Find Latitude and Longitude of current Location in Android” with new useful codes. I got many comments from location based tutorial post so I am going to make it more useful. What’s new in this post….

1. How to get distance between two location using latitude and longitude?
Location l1=new Location("One");
Location l2=new Location("Two");
float distance_bw_one_and_two=l1.distanceTo(l2);
2. How to get Address of any location using latitude and longitude?

Geocoder geo=new Geocoder(getApplicationContext(), Locale.getDefault());
String mylocation; if(Geocoder.isPresent()) { try { List<Address> addresses = geo.getFromLocation(l.getLatitude(), l.getLongitude(), 1); if (addresses != null && addresses.size() > 0) { Address address = addresses.get(0); String addressText = String.format("%s, %s, %s", // If there's a street address, add it address.getMaxAddressLineIndex() > 0 ?address.getAddressLine(0) : "", // Locality is usually a city address.getLocality(), // The country of the address address.getCountryName()); mylocation="Lattitude: "+l.getLatitude()+" Longitude: "+l.getLongitude()+"\nAddress: "+addressText; } } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } }
3. How to get latitude and longitude using Address?

try {
        Geocoder selected_place_geocoder = new Geocoder(context);
        List<Address> address;  
        address = selected_place_geocoder.getFromLocationName(place, 5);
  if(address == null) {
   //do nothing
        } else {
        Address location = address.get(0);
  Latitude lat= location.getLatitude();
  Longitude lng = location.getLongitude();
        } catch (Exception e) {

Hope this update make you all more happy.




Kashmiri Intifada
Kashmiri Intifada


Welcome to Kashmir! It is deep winter. The mountains are covered with snow and the naked trees above the lakes at sunset, look melancholic and magnificent, precisely like a completed Chinese brush painting.

Welcome to a nation overrun by the 700,000-strong security forces of the occupying power – India. Welcome to the continuous presence of barbed wire, of military columns, and ‘security checks’. Welcome to a brutality unimaginable almost anywhere else on earth!

Welcome to a land of joint military exercises conducted by the United States, Israel and India.

Kashmir! Still beautiful but scarred. Still proud but bleeding and thoroughly exhausted… Still standing, still resisting, still free and independent, at least in its heart!

[Please click below to continue reading]


Four kids are standing near the Grand Mosque in Srinagar. They are edgy; they appear to be ready to jump, to run, and to fight, also ready to run and retreat if necessary. It all depends on the circumstances.

“They are raping our sisters and mothers!” screams one youth. I am shown teargas canisters, similar to those used in so many other parts of the world to disperse protesters. They are usually fired into the air. Here they are fired by the security forces directly at people’s heads – with the intention to kill.

In this Kashmiri Intifada, the police, army and paramilitary use slings, guns, teargas canisters, everything that is available, to suppress rebellion.

It also uses video cameras; it films stone-throwing protesters and then it detains them, “disappears” them, and sometimes uses savage torture methods in order to subdue them.

Young men in this neighborhood are routinely detained, and most of them have at least once, been brutalized.

I am photographing empty gas canisters in their hands, always pointing my lenses away from their faces. But kids actually want to pose: they are not afraid, anymore.

Ironically, it is 26th January, the Indian Republic Day.

“We are going later today! To fight them! Come with us!”


Kids ready to fight
Kids ready to fight


They use Arabic words. They point their fingers towards the sky. They are smiling, pretending that they are brave and ready to die, to martyr themselves. But I know that they are scared. I have been in this for many years… I can sense how frightened they are.

They are good kids. They are desperate, cornered, but good.

I promise. I say I will come. Later: as always, I keep my word.


A few days later, in New Delhi, in his comfortable, old-fashioned apartment, the great Indian Kashmiri independent documentary film director, Sanjay Kak, talks to me about the Indian colonialism, in both Kashmir and the Northeast.

We both agree that all over the world, there is very little knowledge about the horrors of the occupation of Kashmir, and almost no knowledge at all about the occupation of the Northeast. In unison, the mass media in India and in the West, censors the information about the true nature of oppression, killing, torture and rapes.

It is because India has betrayed BRICS and moved closer and closer to the Empire, towards the West, signing military pacts with it, while spreading market-oriented gospel. Now it can count on having ‘special status’, like Indonesia. No matter what it does, it will easily get away with it!

Mr. Kak also says that these days it is “difficult to compete in the market-place of global sorrow.”

When I mention the involvement of both the United States and Israel in joint exercises with India, in Kashmir, as well as in the training of Indian police and army officers deployed in Kashmir, Sanjay Kak replies:

“When it comes to brutality, Indian forces could actually teach both Israelis and the United States quite a few things.”

A friend of Sanjay Kak, an Indian writer and activist, Arundhati Roy, explained in March 2013, on “Democracy Now”:

“Today Kashmir is the most densely militarized zone in the world. India has something like 700,000 security forces there. And in the ’90s, early ’90s, the fight became—turned into an armed struggle, and since then, More than 70,000 people have died, maybe 100,000 tortured, more than 8000 disappeared. I mean, we all talk a lot about Chile, Pinochet, but these numbers are far greater.”


In Kashmir itself, I work closely with “Jammu & Kashmir Coalition of Civil Society” – with both its President, Parvez Imroz, and with Parvaiz Matta, a human rights researcher. Both men became my good friends.

JKCCS actually believes that since the 90’s, More than 70,000 people have lost their lives in Kashmir, mostly civilians. The organization is openly calling what occurs in Kashmir – genocide.

Mr. Parvez Imroz wrote for this essay:

“The army since 1989 has resorted to war crimes as they have been given the legal impunity and seldom have any armed personnel for crimes against humanity have been punished. The militarization in Jammu and Kashmir has affected all aspects of life and unfortunately the Indian media and civil society, with some exceptions, have been also extending the moral and political impunity to the army who they believe are fighting trans-border terrorism. The systematic disappearance, mass graves, torture has been completely ignored by the Indian and international media.”

“In order to suppress the freedom struggle in Jammu and Kashmir, the Indian government has resorted to systematic and institutional repression. More than 700,000 armed forces have been pressed into service to neutralize the armed struggle and to control the people of Jammu and Kashmir who are seeking the right of self-determination which government of India had promised before the United Nations in the 1948 and 1949 resolutions. The repression of the Indian state has been part of their policy. In this lie culpable even the judiciary who as a wing of the State has served the interests of the executive and not the people of Jammu and Kashmir.


Even at the top another base
Even at the top another base


“The international institutions and particularly the western civil society and governments after 9/11 and because of Islamophobia and other interests are completely ignoring the situation in Jammu and Kashmir.”


In Kashmir, no matter where I go, no matter where I drive, there are constant, powerful reminders of the occupation: from the almost grotesque presence of the military, police and paramilitary forces, to mass graves. Army barracks are lined up along all the major roads. Military and police trucks drive on them in all directions, on all the major and secondary roads. There are countless roadblocks and checkpoints.

But it is not just the direct and brutal force that is bleeding and destroying Kashmir. Parvaiz Matta explains that this enormous Indian security force has managed to infiltrate and divide local society. Spies and snitches have been inserted. Brave resistance fighters were discredited as informers. Resistance movements have been broken, divided, and so have entire communities, even families.

There is great sense of insecurity. Interrogators telephone formerly detained, alleged resistance figures, and tell them: “We will soon get your sister.”

The brutality of the torture here is unimaginable by any standards. I have investigated and reported on countless warzones, all over the world and countless times, I was entrusted with hair-raising stories of savagery. However, what I learned in Kashmir exceeds the most terrible practices.

In modern history, the cruelty of Indian forces in Kashmir can only be compared to the Indonesian atrocities of 1965 and to its genocide in East Timor, as well as in Papua, or to the brutality of the Rwandese and Ugandan forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Or to the Empire’s direct extermination campaign in Indochina.

Not surprisingly, both India and Indonesia are the West’s client states, promoted as examples of ‘democracy’ and ‘tolerance’.


“India is deprived, hegemonic and violent”, I am told at the house of Parvez Imroz, outside of Srinagar city.

In the highly traditional Kashmiri custom, several people sit on the floor, legs stretched, old-fashioned heaters placed under the blankets. We are drinking tea.

When it comes to this meeting, I can only identify two men in this essay from the JKCCS, by their real names. The rest are those who are working on behalf of their abused land, but their positions in the international organizations and press agencies would be compromised, were they to go publicly on the record.

They all helped me a lot, guiding me, explaining the situation, supplying me with contacts and information. They were willing to speak on condition of anonymity, and it is clear where their hearts and allegiances were:

“Indians are very moralistic, when it comes to Palestine… Although, even that is changing, after this administration of Prime Minister Modi is moving India closer and closer towards the West. US and Israel here are deeply involved in ‘anti-terrorist training’. Countless military and police officers are receiving their education in the US, European Union, and Israel. Police officers are being flown abroad. The army is performing regular exercises with the US and Israeli forces, mainly in the area of Ladakh, near Pakistan.”

“Ladakh is actually extremely popular among Israelis. 20,000 to 30,000 come here, every year, as tourists, or in some double capacity.”

“The ideas and methods of Israeli settlements are widely used in Kashmir. But they are ‘improved’ here. The Indian state is fine-tuning Israeli policies of apartheid.”

Everybody here agrees that the brutality factor is much higher in Kashmir than in Palestine:

“The brutality of Israeli forces is not hidden: it is all in the open. Every action against the Palestinian people is well documented. Israeli actions are constantly criticized from abroad, even at home. Huge blocks of countries, even the EU, are demanding independence for Palestine. Kashmir is different: our Intifada is hidden from the rest of the world. At least 8,000 of our people have already died. Hundreds of thousands have been tortured. But there is almost total silence coming from abroad.”

The similarities between Palestinian and Kashmiri resistance and their aim for independence and statehood, are striking. One of the most famous films made by my friend Sanjay Kak from New Delhi, is called “Jashn-e-Azadi – How We Celebrate Freedom”, and it is exactly about the topic. Sanjay also edited a book: Until My Freedom Has Come – The New Intifada in Kashmir (2011).


Kupwara. Mass graves dot the hill.

When we arrive, the town itself is totally shut down. It is the 21st anniversary of the massacre of local people by Indian forces. Around 27 people were slaughtered here, more than two decades ago, as they demanded the end of the Indian occupation.

“Here, many people were ‘disappeared’; they were killed in so-called staged battles. It happened on several occasions”, explains Parvaiz Matta. “Countless bodies arrived mutilated at the local hospitals: some with no legs, a clear result of torture.”


His two sons were killed
His two sons were killed


There are rusting stretchers resting against a tree. I am told that they were used to shuttle bodies from the hospital to this mass grave. And the bodies kept arriving, being carried by security forces from the forest.

The mass graves are all over the hill, some right next to a public school, which sits at the summit.

“The security forces described the bodies as being those of ‘unidentified foreign terrorists’, I am told. But ‘foreign’ is already a form of identification, isn’t it?”

There are 7000 unmarked and mass graves in Kashmir, I am told…


The 700,000-strong security forces are fighting between 200 and 300 active Mujahedin, resistance fighters.

The ‘fighting’ mainly consists of murdering innocent bystanders and villagers in the remote areas. These corpses are then passed off as the corpses of the Mujahedeen, ‘killed in combat’. That consequently ‘justifies’ huge military operations and budgets.

The ‘fighting’ also includes torturing anyone who is suspected or ‘accused’ of belonging to, or supporting the Mujahedeen; therefore anyone whom the security forces decide to identify as such.

The ‘signature’ torture in Kupwara, consists of cutting off legs or fingers. Torture tools and methods here, in this area, which is very near the Pakistani border, are very elaborate.

The chests of victims are burned with red-hot coins, and electric current administered through the penis. The testicles of victims are burned. Bottles of alcohol are inserted into the rectum of men who are then hung upside down from the ceiling. Wooden rollers are used to destroy legs. Nails are hammered into the feet of prisoners. Those who have half-moon tattoos, have them removed by red-hot pliers.

When a woman gets arrested, it is almost certain that her torture will include gang rape.

Sodomizing male prisoners is also common, all over Kashmir.

All of this, of course, could not pass as anything ‘spontaneous’. There is clearly a pattern. The security forces are trained to do what they are doing. A new, extremely brutal group has been created by the state. It is called SOG, and it mainly consists of the children of police and military personnel killed in battles with the Mujahedeen. It is easy to imagine the type of methods it uses.

“Most cases of torture and rape are not documented”, explained Parvaiz. “But my organization alone has already managed to amass documentation on around 5,000 instances of torture. For instance, a father had his head chopped off in front of his horrified family…”

I make him stop, at least for a few minutes. I need to at least have a short time to digest what I see around me, as well as what I am told.


We drive further, towards the Pakistani border. It is all really lush here – lush and stunningly beautiful. Tall mountains covered by snowcaps, pristine lakes and meadows. I ask our driver to stop; I need some fresh air. I need to see this magnificence, in order to regain strength, before we proceed towards a place that I dread visiting, but which I have to visit nevertheless.

We are heading towards two villages: Kunan and Poshpora.

Here, on 23rd February 1991, the armed forces of India surrounded Kunan, and arrested all men older than the age of 13. They arrived with the tools of torture, in their vehicles, and the torture that they administered, was horrible.

We park the car and I am lead into one of the houses.

It is a traditional, neat and extremely clean house. We take off our shoes. Two men are already waiting in the main room, resting their backs against the wall and soft pillows. A third man arrives shortly after.

We are not here to discuss torture. It is mass rape I am supposed to hear about.


Husbands of rape victims in the village of Kunan
Husbands of rape victims in the village of Kunan


But first, the men recall their own suffering. One of them begins:

“It was February and it was late at night; cold outside, winter. It all began at 11 PM and did not stop until 4 AM, early in the morning. All the men were taken out, into the bitter cold. They stripped us naked, and forced us to stand in an ice-cold stream. There was snow, 3 feet tall all around. They tortured 100 of us; of the men… 40 to 50 were severely tortured. They used electric current, and also, they put red chilly into the water and forced our heads down into it.”

There are no women in the room; no women at all that could be spotted around the house.

Another old man began speaking, while I averted my eyes. It was all extremely uncomfortable, and I knew what a great effort and determination it took for these men to speak about that horrible night, almost a quarter of century ago.

“Women and girls were left in the houses. They were alone and defenseless. The soldiers, around 200 of them, entered the houses, mostly 5-10 per house. They were carrying bottles of alcohol with them – they were drunk. It was all planned like this!”

Now the men spoke over each other:

“Women were raped. All of them… And not only women, but also small girls, from 6 to 13 years of age… Their clothes were torn off, they were insulted, humiliated, then raped.”

Soldiers were screaming at women: ‘You are bloody helping the militants, aren’t you?’

And this was done by Indian troops, and in India, so often; even rape does not end with the act itself. The brutality of the act is regularly indescribable; it includes the insertion of sharp objects, of rusty bars, of anything.

“Many of our women bled profusely. Some were unconscious for 4 or 5 days,” these 3 husbands whose wives survived that terrible night told me.

“One of the women delivered a baby, just 4 days earlier. The baby was hugging her mom when the soldiers entered. They first killed the baby, then gang-raped the mother.”

“They tortured and raped a minor, a girl. They broke her leg. She died later…”

“Some women have undergone treatment for many years, as their rectums were severely damaged”.

5 women died as a result of what took place that night.

There were two cops, from the village, who tried to assist the injured women. Later, they were willing to come forward and to testify. One of them was shot dead – murdered.

I am told that 40 women came forward and gave testimonies. These were married women. Minor, unmarried girls, had kept their identity secret. But even so, almost no young woman from Kunan could get married, afterwards. The stigma was too great and no villager from the area wanted to marry a rape victim.

Parvaiz explained that the rapes are still taking place in the deep provinces, in the frontier areas, where the people are at the mercy of the military. “Still, rape is used as a weapon of war”, he said.

For the Kunan onslaught, not one soldier has been punished, so far.

Before we left, the husbands of the rape victims, explained:

“This happened at the beginning… Then many other, terrible events took place. We tried to play by the rules, using the Indian legal system. But after almost a quarter of a century, there has been no justice. Here, the law only protects those guilty ones. This militarization of Kashmir ruined our lives! Now, we just want to be freed by destiny! This was all a terrible trauma for us. Even children from other villages are mocking our women and girls: “Oh, you come from that village where all the women were raped!”

It was a humbling experience, facing those tough Kashmiri men, who decided to open themselves up to me.

After they spoke, we walked from Kunan to Poshpora Village. Metaphorically, the ice was broken. I was allowed to photograph villagers, both men and women. I was accepted.

As we began driving towards Srinagar, there was a long silence inside the car. Then I broke it:



“The fact that they mock the girls and women…” I began…

I knew he was thinking the same.

“Would you marry a rape victim?” He asked.

“If I were to be in love with her, yes, of course I would.”

“Are you sure?”

“Yes,” I said.

“This is where our culture has failed”, he said. And this is when I knew, that he would do the same.

I told him about the mass rape in the city of Ermera, in East Timor. The Indonesian forces did it – exactly the same scenario as in the Kashmiri village of Kunan.

I was then working illegally in East Timor. I was detained and tortured. Nobody ever got punished for the rape or for the killings. Many people directly responsible for the genocide in East Timor are now governing Indonesia.


As we passed Kupwara, the mood in the car significantly improved.

“I did not want to tell you, but chances were that before reaching Kupwara, we could have been stopped, interrogated and then…”

I got the point.

But now ‘it was fine’.

The further we drove away from Kupwara, the safer it was getting; by now we would have many arguments for justifying our trip. I photographed a few military and paramilitary camps, through the windshield.

Then I asked our driver to stop. I needed to take a piss. He pushed the brakes right next to some beautiful Kashmiri apple orchard.

I stepped out from the car and walked towards the first tree; the fresh air and beautiful countryside, and stuff like that… Then I spotted him: a soldier, semi-camouflaged, holding his machinegun, ready. I pissed towards him, defiantly. Then I saluted him, mockingly. He did not even smile, just stood there, like an idiot, under the apple tree.

I was wondering whether there are more Indian security personnel in Kashmir, or apple trees?


I visited Mr. Hassan Bhat in Sopore City, known for its resistance fighters.

Mr. Bhat used to be one of them, but he was captured and tortured savagely, on several occasions, and he gave up on active duty.

The security forces killed both his sons. Just like that, both died by the time they reached the age of 15.

One son had gone to a local store, in 2006, to buy milk, and a security agent shot him through the chest, from his speeding police car. Another boy died in 2010, when some kids got engaged in stone-throwing, and he was caught in the middle of it, when he got scared, and jumped into the river. Police began shooting tear gas canisters at anyone who was in the water. They hit him with one of those, and he died.

“I know the perpetrators, I know the officer who was in charge”, said Mr. Bhat. He tried to file a complaint, but the police refused to register the case.

“The officer-in-charge was going to join the UN Peacekeepers”, said Parvaiz. “India often sends people who fought in Kashmir, to the UN. It is a huge money-making scheme for the country… But my organization identified him, and supplied the UN with detailed evidence on his crimes. After that, his application got rejected.”

I actually saw the Indian UN “Peacekeepers” in action, in Goma, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where even the former UNHCR head, Ms. Masako Yonekawa, complained to me about the many illegal activities perpetrated by the Indian ‘peacekeeping contingent’.

Then, Mr. Bhat and I stood by the shore of the River Jhelum.

“It flows all the way to Pakistan,” he sighed.

Mr. Bhat, despite all those horrors that he has survived, is a kind, gentle man.

I asked him whether he thinks that Kashmir will be able to, at some point, gain its independence.

“80% of Kashmiri people want freedom”, he said. “80% is a lot of people, don’t you think?”

I am being shown where, in 1993, an entire area had been destroyed, by the BSF (Border Security Forces). Back then, 53 people died.

Later we go, in the middle of the night, to a house where a battle took place between the Indian forces and the Mujahedeen, just a few days earlier.

Sopore is still fighting.

But there is fear. It is cold; it is an omnipresent fear.

I am told by many, that now, people are afraid of even protesting against the scarcity of basic supplies. One could easily disappear.

I am told that here, the Indian forces are trying to hook young people on alcohol and drugs, in order to keep them away from the resistance.

But others say: in this city, in Sopore, people are determined. They resist. They are active here. This city produces big people! People that never surrender! Indian forces call it “Little Pakistan”.

Can the huge oppressive force really be defeated, and if yes, then how?

This is when, even in Sopore; even in the middle of the night, in front of a house that recently witnessed a real battle, everyone gets realistic:

“Only international pressure can help!”


At some point, one gets exhausted, almost numb, after listening to detailed and well-documented accounts of extra-judicial killings, disappearances, torture and rapes.

At one point I was presented with evidence about a man who was detained, questioned and when he appeared defiant, both of his feet were chopped off. He survived. When still in detention, sometime later, the security forces cut off substantial parts of his flesh, from different parts of his body; cooked it, and forced him to eat it, for several days. He survived… The case is documented and HR organizations are demanding justice. No one has been punished.


There is genocide: terrible, outrageous and unreported by the cowardly media and the intellectuals, in both India and the West.

People, who dare to speak and write about the plight of Kashmir, are intimidated, deported, and even physically attacked.

Arundhati Roy is periodically threatened with sedition charges, lawsuits and life imprisonment.

Others, like the legendary radio host David Barsamian, got deported from India, no explanation given.

In October 2011, a senior Supreme Court advocate Mr. Prashant Bhushan (who drafted the Lokpal Bill), was brutally beaten in his chambers at the Supreme Court after he made comments on Kashmir. Mr. Bhushan’s spoke on human rights violations and militarization in Kashmir.


There are tourists in Kashmir, not only Indian, but foreigners as well. They go skiing and snowboarding in Gulmarg, or hiking to Ladakh. There are Europeans and Israelis, some North Americans.

Many locals call it “horror tourism in Rapistan”.

I encountered several couples, high in the mountains, in Gulmarg: red cheeks from too much fresh air at the high altitude. I talked to a British couple enjoying skiing, a German couple on vacation… They had no clue about what was happening in Kashmir. When I pressed them a bit: “But you must have noticed all those bunkers, military convoys and checkpoints”, their simple reply was: “Yes… Well, India has to do something about the terrorism problem, right?”

It is a well-documented fact that the Empire is counting on several countries, all over the world, for acting on its behalf, spreading terror in the ‘neighborhood’, often brutalizing even its own people. These countries are, for instance, Rwanda, Uganda and Kenya in Africa, Honduras and Columbia in Latin America, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Qatar in the Middle East, Indonesia, Thailand and now India in Southern Asia.

Most of the brutal lackey states are christened as ‘democracies’, as tolerant, as the examples worth following.

These countries are promoted as ‘Lands of Smiles’, or as ‘cultures of non-violence’. It is all farcical, but somehow, not many people seem to be laughing.

It is because they don’t know. It is because brutality and cynicism still pays.

And this approach should stop! Brutal crimes against humanity have to be exposed. Countries that are murdering thousands of innocent people have to be shamed publicly and dealt with, internationally. It goes without saying that a state that is serving the Empire, torturing and raping those who are longing for independence, while in the same time spitting on its own poor, should never have place in an organization like BRICS!


I went back to the area of the Grand Mosque in Srinagar, on 26th January, as I promised. I followed the kids. A few streets away, after 2 PM, fighting erupted.

It was all raw and tough, and it clearly resembled Palestine.

The only great difference was that other than me there were no witnesses, to describe the courage of local youth, as well as the oppression of the Kashmiri people by the Indian state.

Two days later I took the longest cable car in Asia, at Gulmarg. I wanted to see ‘what was up there’. There is, of course, a military base!

On the way down, the electricity collapsed and our gondola froze, suspended in midair. The door would not close, and there were holes, all over. It was India, after all. I could have frozen to death, if the stuff did not begin moving a few minutes later.

India is facing some of the most serious challenges on Earth: from illiteracy to deep poverty. 700,000 security forces cost billions of dollars, annually, pragmatically speaking. Even if the Indian elites, government and military do not care about the Kashmiri people and their plight, they should care at least about their own poor!

Holding Kashmir against its will brings no benefits to India and its people. It is definitely undemocratic and brutal… and absolutely unnecessary!


Welcome to Kashmir! Its beauty is fabled. Its lakes, mountain ranges, deep valleys and rivers are proud and striking. Its people warm, welcoming, but strong.

Kashmir is bleeding. Its valleys are divided by barbed wire. Its women are raped. Its men tortured and humiliated. The cries of Kashmiri people are muted. The world knows almost nothing about their plight, about their suffering.

700,000-man security force fighting around 300 men! And they cannot win. Why? The answer is simple: It is because no brutal force on earth could ever defeat those who are fighting for the survival of their land, for something so dear, so beloved!

Source: counterpunch

Andre Vltchek is a novelist, filmmaker and investigative journalist. He covered wars and conflicts in dozens of countries. The result is his latest book: Fighting Against Western Imperialism‘Pluto’ published his discussion with Noam Chomsky: On Western Terrorism. His critically acclaimed political novel Point of No Return is re-edited and available. Oceania is his book on Western imperialism in the South Pacific. His provocative book about post-Suharto Indonesia and the market-fundamentalist model is called “Indonesia – The Archipelago of Fear”. His feature documentary, “Rwanda Gambit” is about Rwandan history and the plunder of DR Congo. After living for many years in Latin America and Oceania, Vltchek presently resides and works in East Asia and Africa. He can be reached through his website or his Twitter.

The statements, views and opinions expressed in this column are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of Oceania Saker.

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  1. “It is because India has betrayed BRICS and moved closer and closer to the Empire, towards the West, signing military pacts with it, while spreading market-oriented gospel. Now it can count on having ‘special status’, like Indonesia. No matter what it does, it will easily get away with it!”

    This reminds me of a Wikileaks record where the recent coup leader of Thailand met with US officials and said “We want to be like you.”

  2. Thanks for the article. Let me say that I am no fan of Indian government or kashmiri muslims. But I did find your reporting to be biased.
    Since you have detailed the kashmiri muslims side, please also share your thoughts on non muslims in kashmir and specially pandits. How were there lives during the 1980s and 1990s?
    Specially, elaborate more on the night of 19 Jan 1990 from a kashmiri pandit perspective.
    Here is the excerpt from wikipedia
    “They began to leave in much greater numbers in the 1990s, following persecution by jihadists. The events of 19 January 1990 were particularly vicious. On that day, mosques issued declarations that the Kashmiri Pandits were Kafirs and that the males had to leave Kashmir, convert to Islam or be killed. Those who chose to the first of these were told to leave their women behind so that they could be used as sex slaves. The Kashmiri Muslims were instructed to identify Pandit homes so they could be systematically targeted for conversion or killing”
    Did the local kashmiri’s corraborated with the Jihadis? How were the minority hindus and christians treated?
    Also mention details of the chittisinghpura incident where 36 sikhs were rounded up and killed. Again wikipedia reference :
    Again, for the sake of clarity I don’t think Indian government is any way innocent or victim. They have brutally killed the insurgency almost similar to what they did in Punjab. When was punjab settled? When it stopped getting support from pakistan and the local punjabi’s denounced terrorism. I suspect the same thing to happen in Kashmir.

    1. Here muslims are making announcements in mosques and what do Indian intelligence services and army do to protect pundits, army was there in kashmir in their thousands? Why they let it happen?

    2. The reporting is only slightly biased..all the pandits killed in kashmir were either agents of intelligence agencies or were working to continue the oppresion of kashmiri muslims..its important to
      Mention that only 219 kashmiri pandits have been killed so far in the conflict and their exodus was planned by the indian agencies to commit the genocide it is commoting ryt a kashmiri i am saddened by thr migration because i believe its as much thr land as it is ours or may be it was,i am nt sure abt the same time what they dnt tell u abt is the massacre of kashmiri muslims in jammu by the thn dogra maharaja hari singh while he was getting ready to leave the state,250 000 muslims massacred in jammu alone and it was before the instrument of accesion was signed!and every sikh in kashmir knows who commited the chittisinghpora massacre..the bottomline is u pple dnt want to know the truth or are hesitant to accept the crimes commited by ur so called secular democratic republic is kashmir!this fyt is not getting over soon,i kno that and i live withthat but do u kno that!

    3. Sorry to say this is a big lie that u r talking. I am a kashmiri v had a talent in our house from 1985 to1998 and he was a hindu nobody forced him to leave. Stop spreading this lie

  3. #Niraj you are a big lier we Kashmiri Muslims dont believe in communalism . our religion doesnt teach us that. You should read the history of Kashmir. For the fate of 1 lakh Pandiths you are ignoring 1 crore people (10000000). Pandiths were missing in the fight against the oppressive regime of brutal Maharja Hari singh. Instead of siading and helping their Muslim brethn they sided Maharaja and India in massacring Muslims. Those who were in IB and RAw were killed rest were killed by Indian agencies to demonise Kashmir freedom movement. sometimes you should speak truth. you people are biased not this reporter.

  4. Kashmir is a disputed territory unlawfully occupied by india. Kashmiris are struggling for freedom from india.

  5. sponsored and highly one sided account of affairs.
    Every country has right to use all its might to protect its soverienity.

  6. Dear Commentators,

    This topic like most topics we tackle here are indeed close to many hearts. We need to understand that suffering does not know race,religion,colour,creed or status.

    Suffering is suffering. And in today’s world suffering is promoted when we focus on race,religion,nationality etc.

    The Indian sub-continent has a great potential to liberate its masses with free education,healthcare,housing and bestowing them with true freedom and universal human rights. To lift them from not just poverty of the material world but poverty of the uneducated and unenlightened mind.

    Instead what we have are two “governments” (Pakistani and Indian) that do everything but promote peace. Both countries are ruled by powerful interests (business, religious and military) and not by the people.

    Once people realize this fact they will begin to see that very little actually separates the common man from India,Kashmir or Pakistan.


Little boy who gave $20 to vandalized mosque receives a special surprise


Jack Swanson receives a “Thank you” package in the mail after doing a good deed.

A little boy in south Texas did something pretty great last week, and the news spread quickly across the world, via social media. Seven-year-old Jack Swenson took $20 from his piggy bank and decided to give it to a community mosque that had been grossly defaced during a Muslim hate crime.

Twenty dollars might not seem a lot to some, but to Jack Swanson, it was a life’s savings.  And to Faisal Naem, a board member from theIslamic Center of Pflugerville, Jack’s gift was comparable to “$20 million” to the Muslim community.


Jack Swanson shakes hands with Faisal Naem, a board member of the Islamic Center of Pflugerville, TX after presenting the mosque with his treasure.

What many didn’t know last week was that Jack Swanson was saving his pennies for an Apple iPad. Ardalan Iftikhar heard about the story and said he was moved to tears. Known to some on social media as The Muslim Guy, Iftikar contacted Jack’s mother, Laura Swanson, and within days, Jack received a package in the mail along with this note from Iftikhar: 

‘Dear Jack, you had saved $20 in your piggybank for an Apple iPad. But then a local Islamic mosque was vandalised. So you donated your $20 to this local Texas mosque. Because of your amazing generosity & kind heart. ‘Please enjoy this Apple iPad with our sincere thanks :-). Love The American Muslim Community.’  

Jack Swanson will most likely always remember how his kindness was received by many around the world. What a wonderful lesson to learn so young — that when we give to others, from our hearts, expecting nothing in return, the good often comes back to us, multiplied. Thank you, Jack, for this lovely reminder.




A Spanish court is stirring up controversy after issuing arrest warrants for Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and seven other former and current government officials in connection to the 2010 attack of the Freedom Flotilla ships.

Spanish National Court Judge Jose de la Mata ordered the police to alert him if Netanyahu or the seven others enter the country. The other officials include former foreign minister Avigdor Liberman; current and former defence ministers Moshe Ya’alon and Ehud Barak and others. Spain is the most recent country to accuse Israel of war crimes in connection to the Gaza conflict. In this particular case, Israel attacked ships in the Freedom Flotilla who were attempting to bring humanitarian aid to Palestine.

In 2010, the Mavi Marmara ship was the lead civilian ship in the Freedom Flotilla, travelling from Istanbul to the Gaza Strip.  Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) stormed the ship when they tried to breach the blockade set up by Israel — the blockade that prevented much-needed supplies from reaching the Palestinian people. IDF’s attack on the ship left nine civilian activists dead, and a tenth activist died a month later.

According to the IB Times:

Although local proceedings in Turkey took the matter to trial as well, it was stalled after Netanyahu made a partial apology. Similarly, several efforts to arrest Israeli officials in England stalled after the UK government amended the law to make it more difficult for individual judges to issue arrest warrants against state heads and diplomats without state approval.

Israel is not pleased with the Spanish court’s decision to issue an arrest warrant for their cowardly leader. Foreign Ministry spokesman Emmanuel Nachshon issued a comment on Saturday night expressing their anger:

We consider it [the judge’s order] to be a provocation. We are working with the Spanish authorities to get it canceled. We hope it will be over soon.

A provocation? Well, they’d certainly know what that is since they are the masters of provocation.

Israel has been committing war crimes for years and until recently, most of the international community has allowed them to continue doing so. Unfortunately for Netanyahu, the world is sick and tired of watching them needlessly slaughter the Palestinian people because they don’t like Muslims. That’s right, it has nothing to do with protecting themselves and everything to do with Netanyahu hating Islam. He has even said that he would not accept Syrian refugees into Israel because the refugees practice the Islamic faith.

It’s sad that a country with such a deep and personal connection to genocide would commit the same atrocities that killed more than 6 million of their own people. Sure, Netanyahu doesn’t use gas chambers and ovens, but his bombs and IDF are accomplishing the same thing. It’s about damn time the world stands up and stops his reign of terror.



Salk team finds molecule that slows the clock on key aspects of aging in animals


November 12, 2015

Experimental drug targeting Alzheimer’s disease shows anti-aging effects

Salk team finds molecule that slows the clock on key aspects of aging in animals

LA JOLLA–Salk Institute researchers have found that an experimental drug candidate aimed at combating Alzheimer’s disease has a host of unexpected anti-aging effects in animals.

The Salk team expanded upon their previous development of a drug candidate, called J147, which takes a different tack by targeting Alzheimer’s major risk factor–old age. In the new work, the team showed that the drug candidate worked well in a mouse model of aging not typically used in Alzheimer’s research. When these mice were treated with J147, they had better memory and cognition, healthier blood vessels in the brain and other improved physiological features, as detailed November 12, 2015 in the journal Aging.

“Initially, the impetus was to test this drug in a novel animal model that was more similar to 99 percent of Alzheimer’s cases,” says Antonio Currais, the lead author and a member of Professor David Schubert’s Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory at Salk. “We did not predict we’d see this sort of anti-aging effect, but J147 made old mice look like they were young, based upon a number of physiological parameters.”

Antonio Currais and David Schubert
Antonio Currais and David Schubert
Click here for a high-resolution image.
Image: Courtesy of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive brain disorder, recently ranked as the third leading cause of death in the United States and affecting more than five million Americans. It is also the most common cause of dementia in older adults, according to the National Institutes of Health. While most drugs developed in the past 20 years target the amyloid plaque deposits in the brain (which are a hallmark of the disease), few have proven effective in the clinic.

“While most drugs developed in the past 20 years target the amyloid plaque deposits in the brain (which are a hallmark of the disease), none have proven effective in the clinic,” says Schubert, senior author of the study.

Several years ago, Schubert and his colleagues began to approach the treatment of the disease from a new angle. Rather than target amyloid, the lab decided to zero in on the major risk factor for the disease–old age. Using cell-based screens against old age-associated brain toxicities, they synthesized J147.

Previously, the team found that J147 could prevent and even reverse memory loss and Alzheimer’s pathology in mice that have a version of the inherited form of Alzheimer’s, the most commonly used mouse model. However, this form of the disease comprises only about 1 percent of Alzheimer’s cases. For everyone else, old age is the primary risk factor, says Schubert. The team wanted to explore the effects of the drug candidate on a breed of mice that age rapidly and experience a version of dementia that more closely resembles the age-related human disorder.

In this latest work, the researchers used a comprehensive set of assays to measure the expression of all genes in the brain, as well as over 500 small molecules involved with metabolism in the brains and blood of three groups of the rapidly aging mice. The three groups of rapidly aging mice included one set that was young, one set that was old and one set that was old but fed J147 as they aged.

The old mice that received J147 performed better on memory and other tests for cognition and also displayed more robust motor movements. The mice treated with J147 also had fewer pathological signs of Alzheimer’s in their brains. Importantly, because of the large amount of data collected on the three groups of mice, it was possible to demonstrate that many aspects of gene expression and metabolism in the old mice fed J147 were very similar to those of young animals. These included markers for increased energy metabolism, reduced brain inflammation and reduced levels of oxidized fatty acids in the brain.

Another notable effect was that J147 prevented the leakage of blood from the microvessels in the brains of old mice. “Damaged blood vessels are a common feature of aging in general, and in Alzheimer’s, it is frequently much worse,” says Currais.

Currais and Schubert note that while these studies represent a new and exciting approach to Alzheimer’s drug discovery and animal testing in the context of aging, the only way to demonstrate the clinical relevance of the work is to move J147 into human clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease.

“If proven safe and effective for Alzheimer’s, the apparent anti-aging effect of J147 would be a welcome benefit,” adds Schubert. The team aims to begin human trials next year.

Other authors on the paper include Oswald Quehenberger of the University of California, San Diego; and Joshua Goldberg, Catherine Farrokhi, Max Chang, Marguerite Prior, Richard Dargusch, Daniel Daugherty and Pamela Maher of the Salk Institute.

This study was supported by the Salk Institute Pioneer Fund Postdoctoral Scholar Award and the Salk Nomis Fellowship Award, fellowships from the Hewitt Foundation and Bundy Foundation, and grants from the Burns Foundation and NIH.

Salk has an issued patent on J147 licensed to Abrexa Pharmaceuticals.





Antonio Currais, Joshua Goldberg, Catherine Farrokhi, Max Chang, Marguerite Prior, Richard Dargusch, Daniel Daugherty, Aaron Armando, Oswald Quehenberger, Pamela Maher, David Schubert

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Faculty achievements have been recognized with numerous honors, including Nobel Prizes and memberships in the National Academy of Sciences. Founded in 1960 by polio vaccine pioneer Jonas Salk, MD, the Institute is an independent nonprofit organization and architectural landmark.

The Gloves Come Off: Putin Exposes G20’s Financial Ties to ISIS

The Gloves Come Off: Putin Exposes G20’s Financial Ties to ISIS

At G20 summit, Putin calls out member states for supporting terrorism

 19 hours ago | 48,367 63

Terror funders.
Terror funders.

In a classic Putin move, the Russian President presented evidence of G20 member states providing financial support to ISIS…during the G20 summit in Antalya. Speaking with reporters after the summit, Putin revealed

I provided examples related to our data on the financing of Islamic State units by natural persons in various countries. The financing comes from 40 countries, as we established, including some G20 members

Putin also provided satellite images of the Islamic State’s lucrative oil smuggling operations: 


I’ve demonstrated the pictures from space to our colleagues, which clearly show the true size of the illegal trade of oil and petroleum products market. Car convoys stretching for dozens of kilometers, going beyond the horizon when seen from a height of four-five thousand meters

Interestingly, immediately after the summit, the U.S. announced that its warplanes had begun to bomb ISIS truck convoys  used to “smuggle the crude oil it has been producing in Syria”. What a strange coincidence. It’s as if the U.S. knew exactly where these convoys were, but didn’t feel compelled to destroy them until now. The world is full of mysteries! 

But the real story here is that Putin actually got up in front of the world’s largest economic powers and told them, right to their faces, that Russia knows exactly what they are doing. 


സ്വാതന്ത്രസമര കാലഘട്ടത്തിൽ രാജ്യത്തിനായി സംഭാവനകൾ ഒന്നും നൽകാത്ത സംഘടനയുടെ പിന്മുറക്കാർ വിമർശിക്കുന്നത് അഖണ്ഡ ഭാരതത്തിനു വേണ്ടി നില നിന്ന താജ്‌ മുഹമ്മദ്‌ ഖാന്റെ പുത്രനെ

ഷാരൂഖിന്റെ ദേശസ്നേഹം ചോദ്യം ചെയ്യുന്ന ബിജെപി നേതാക്കൾക്കറിയുമോ രാജ്യത്തിനായി പോരാടിയ താജ്‌ മുഹമ്മദ്‌ ഖാനെ?സ്വാതന്ത്രസമരത്തിന്റെ തീച്ചൂളയിലേക്ക് എടുത്ത് ചാടി രാജ്യത്തിനായി പോരാടിയ ഷാരൂഖ് ഖാന്റെ കുടുംബ ചരിത്രം


25sld11രാജ്യത്ത് അസഹിഷ്ണുത വര്‍ധിച്ചു വരികയാണെന്ന ബോളിവുഡ് കിംഗ് ഷാരൂഖ് ഖാന്റെ പ്രസ്താവനയ്ക്ക് ശേഷം ഷാരൂഖിന്റെ രാജ്യസ്നേഹം ചോദ്യം ചെയ്ത് സംഘപരിവാർ നേതാക്കൾ ഒന്നടങ്കം രംഗത്ത് ഇറങ്ങിയിരിക്കുകയാണല്ലോ.കഴിഞ്ഞ തിങ്കളാഴ്ചയാണു രാജ്യത്ത് അസഹിഷ്ണുത വര്‍ധിച്ചു വരികയാണെന്നും അസഹിഷ്ണുതയില്‍ പ്രതിഷേധിച്ച് സാഹിത്യകാരന്മാര്‍ പുരസ്‌ക്കാരങ്ങള്‍ തിരികെ നല്‍കുന്ന പുതിയ മുന്നേറ്റത്തെ ബഹുമാനിക്കുന്നുണ്ടെന്നും തനിക്ക് ലഭിച്ച പത്മശ്രീ പുരസ്‌കാരം തിരിച്ച് നല്‍കാന്‍ തയ്യാറാണെന്നും ഷാരൂഖ് പറഞ്ഞത് അതിനെ തുടർന്നാണു ഷാരൂഖ് പാക് ഏജന്റാണെന്ന ആരോപണവുമായി സംഘപരിവാർ നേതാക്കൾ രംഗത്ത് വന്നത്

Shah-Rukh-Khan-fatherസ്വാതന്ത്രസമരകാലത്ത് രാജ്യത്തിന്റെ സ്വാതന്ത്രത്തിനായി പോരാടിയ കുടുംബമാണു ഷാരൂഖിന്റേത്.ഷാരൂഖിന്റെ പിതാവ് താജ് മുഹമ്മദ് ഖാൻ സ്വാതന്ത്രസമരത്തിൽ സജീവമായി പങ്കെടുത്തയാളാണു.ഇന്ത്യൻ നാഷണൽ കോൺഗ്രസിൽ വിദ്യാർഥി കാലഘട്ടം മുതൽ അംഗമായിരുന്ന ഷാരൂഖിന്റെ പിതാവ് പെഷവാര്‍ കേന്ദ്രീകരിച്‌ ക്വിറ്റ്‌ ഇന്ത്യാ സമരത്തിലെ മുന്നണി പോരാളി ആയിരുന്നു.അതിർത്തി ഗാന്ധി എന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന ഖാൻ അബ്ദുൾ ഗാഫർ ഖാന്റെ ആശയങ്ങളിൽ ആകൃഷ്ടനായ താജ് മുഹമ്മദ് ഖാൻ വിഭജനാനന്തരം പാക്കിസ്ഥാൻ വിട്ട്‌ ഇന്ത്യയിൽ താമസമാക്കിയ രാജ്യ സ്നേഹി കൂടിയാണു.

Shah-Rukh-Khan-Parentsസ്വാതന്ത്രസമരകാലത്തെ പ്രവർത്തനങ്ങൾ ബഹുമാനിച്ച് രാജ്യം ഷാരൂഖിന്റെ പിതാവിനു ” താമ്ര പത്രം ” നൽകി ബഹുമാനിച്ചിരുന്നു.അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ പുത്രനെയാണു പാകിസ്ഥാൻ ഏജന്റായി സംഘപരിവാർ നേതാക്കൾ ചിത്രീകരിക്കുന്നത്

ഷാരൂഖിന്റെ മാതാവ് സുഭാഷ് ചന്ദ്ര ബോസിന്റെ കാലഘട്ടത്തിൽ ഇന്ത്യൻ നാഷണൽ ആർമിയിൽ മേജർ ജനറൽ ആയിരുന്ന ഷാനവാസ് ഖാന്റെ ദത്ത് പുത്രിയായിരുന്നു.

അഖണ്ഡ ഭാരതത്തിനു വേണ്ടി നില നിന്ന കാരണം 1948 മുതൽ 1954 വരെ പെഷവാറിൽ തടവറയിലായിരുന്നു ഷാരൂഖിന്റെ പിതാവിന്റെ സഹോദരൻ ഗുലാം മുഹമ്മദ്‌ ഖാൻ.ചുരുക്കത്തിൽ ഭാരതത്തിന്റെ സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യത്തിനായി പോരാടുകയും ഭാരതത്തിനായി നിലകൊള്ളുകയും ചെയ്ത ഒരു കുടുംബത്തിലെ അംഗത്തെയാണു സ്വാതന്ത്രസമര കാലഘട്ടത്തിൽ രാജ്യത്തിനായി സംഭാവനകൾ ഒന്നും നൽകാത്ത സംഘടനയുടെ പിന്മുറക്കാർ വിമർശിക്കുന്നത്

The media is 100% ignoring NSA Director Binney who just questioned 9/11 and WTC 7 on film


Ten years on, Iraq lies in ruins as new evidence confirms U.S. government used Death Squads to manufacture ‘Civil War’



Ten years on, Iraq lies in ruins as new evidence confirms U.S. government used Death Squads to manufacture ‘Civil War’


The ‘democratization’ of Iraq – March 19th, 2003

Ten years ago, more or less to the day, I wrote the following on the then Signs of the Times page:

“As I sit here, a motion in the UK House of commons has been defeated by some 415 votes to 149. Not that any other result would have stopped the US, yet it signifies a full green light for the attack on Iraq. Bush’s ‘ultimatum’ to Saddam expires at midnight (GMT) Thursday (7pm EST). “Shock and Awe” (read “death and destruction”) may come at any time between now and then. We have at most one day, one day left to ponder at the edge of the abyss before the coming darkness engulfs us all. 

As if to mock those who are against this illegal invasion and the lies and deceit that have been used to justify it, Ari Fleishcer today stated that, even if Saddam went into exile now, the US would still invade. It’s not about WMD, it’s about domination and the destructive principle. Perhaps Ari feels he can be more truthful now that it is a ‘done deal’, now that Cheney, Rumsfeld and Blair have told the peace-loving people of the world to go f**k themselves. It must have been hard for Fleischer to stand up in front of the world’s media every day and lie so profusely. (Then again, maybe not). 

It’s hard for me to describe the feelings I have right now; there is an enormous sense of impending doom, mixed with anger at being made to feel so helpless in the face of such rampant psychopathy. Who are these men that they can simply decide to throw the world and its inhabitants into “war without end”, and who are we that they could, for so long, fool us with such pathetic and barely-disguised lies and know that we would just roll over and let them get away with it?”

Ten years ago today, the US and British military (with a posse of cowed ‘allies’ in tow) launched ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ aka ‘Shock and Awe’ aka, ‘Operation Destroy the Critical Infrastructure of Iraq and Initiate an Overt Decade-long Attack on – and Occupation of – the Iraqi People.’ To date, at least 1.5 million Iraqi civilians have been murdered, and at least 5 million displaced from their homes as a direct result of ‘liberation’. This on top ofmillions killed and impoverished by US-led economic sanctions in the preceding decade. Deadly car bombings continue to this day. Suffice to say, Iraq was not liberated: it was destroyed, and destroyed deliberately. 

Last week, the UK Guardian newspaper published the results of a 15-month investigation by the Guardian and BBC Arabic. Euphemistically titled ‘James Steele: America’s mystery man in Iraq‘, the video report presents fairly damning evidence that, in the immediate aftermath of the US invasion of Iraq, the US Govt. and military began to assemble a 10,000 strong ‘Shia militia’ that, under US command, would be used to do three things:

  1. Kidnap, torture, murder and maim members of the Iraq resistance and those members of the Iraqi population that supported them.
  2. Plants bombs that targeted predominantly Sunni and Shia areas in an effort to divide the population and thereby any unified resistance to the US occupation.
  3. Create the impression of a ‘civil war’ in Iraq that could be used by the US and European governments and militaries to justify the continued occupation of Iraq for ‘peace-keeping’ purposes.

James Steele, Cheney and Rumsfeld’s ‘Mr. death-squad’ in Iraq.

While the 50 minute documentary is proof enough that Rumsfeld, Cheney, General Petraeus, and all the other NeoCon warhawks and CIA monsters consciously employed the services of former US Army Colonel James Steele in the organisation of death squads against the Iraqi grass-roots resistance (a tactic that he, Steele, had used against resistance movements in South America in the 1970s and 90′s), it panders to the official narrative that ‘sectarianism’ in Iraq was the root cause of the carnage that unfolded. 

The so-called ‘Shia militia’ used by the American government (with the help and advice of British and Israeli counter-insurgency ‘experts’) were recruited directly by the CIA and people like James Steele to carry out extra-judicial murders of anyone they could loosely identify as ‘resistance’. In order to cloak this strategy, indiscriminate attacks on Iraqi civilians, Shia and Sunni alike, were carried out on a massive scale. Some of these individuals, in another setting, would be called ‘al-Qaeda’. Their usefulness in the employ of US warhawks in the Pentagon was doubly valuable because they both justified continued US occupation andprovided ‘proof’ for the American War on Terror mythology, ex post facto, that the US was at war with the perpetrators of 9/11. 

Whereas before the invasion in 2003 there was absolutely nothing to link 9/11 to Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, the creation of death squads (real) labelled ‘al Qaeda in Iraq’ (fictitious) ‘made real’ the lie that America and all Western civilization was at war against hordes of irrational and violent Muslims, and became the template for instigating terrorism to suppress popular uprisings in Yemen, Mali and elsewhere. Once they have people violent, they can wear down and manage the national popular resistance, ensuring no opposition to the real strategic objectives (namely the control of Middle Eastern oil). The US forces of occupation, along with their British counterparts, had long experience in what actually happens when you militarily invade and occupy a sovereign nation: the people resist, and not just one ethnic or religious group, but more or less the whole population. There is nothing quite like a foreign occupation for uniting a country. 

The British pursued this policy in Northern Ireland. First they sought the ‘Criminalisation’ of the conflict (presenting all resistance as ‘terrorists’) and then the ‘Ulsterisation’ of the conflict, which sought to create the impression among the wider British and world public that the struggle in Northern Ireland was an internal ‘sectarian conflict’, with the British playing the role of the frustrated ‘peace-keepers’. Both strategies were outlined in an unpublished 1975 British strategy paper titled ‘The Way Ahead‘. As part of the effort to create the reality of a ‘civil war’, death squads were used to attack civilians from both communities (Catholic and Protestant). 

In Iraq, these US-controlled ‘Shia’ death squads have been operating in much the same way, and while the media is content to portray them as ordinary Shias motivated by religious bias, they are in fact hired thugs who value only the money they are paid by their US masters and the promise of positions of power in a future Iraqi government. Like the rank and file of the ‘Libyan rebels’ and the ‘Free Syrian Army’, these people form the dregs of Arab and Middle Eastern societies. Led by spellbinders who veil their barbaric actions with religious prose, secular leaders in the region, like Ghaddafi and Assad, and Nasser and Arafat before them, struggled in vain to keep them at bay. The reason for this is because the US, Britain, France and Israel have consistently supported – in the form of weapons, money, training and blatant lies – the extremists against the rational voices. 


Throughout the US occupation of Iraq, the main representative of Shias in Iraq, Muqtada al-Sadr, has repeatedly called for unity among Shia and Sunni Iraqis in the face of foreign occupation and deception in the form of efforts to divide the resistance. These efforts included the bombing of bridges in Baghdad and other Iraqi cities in an effort to prevent communication between Iraqis, the use of widespread terror tactics to force Sunni and Shia Iraqis to flee their homes, and the bombing of religious shrines, either Shia or Sunni, in an effort to create the reality of ‘sectarian strife’. 

Iraq today is in ruins. The country has been ripped apart socially, mainly by way of the literal ripping apart of tens of thousands of civilians, with many being first brutally and systematically tortured by US-sponsored death squads. Hundreds of thousands more have been summarily murdered, either by the bombs of US aircraft, the bullets of US soldiers, or those ubiquitous and very effective ‘car bombs‘ planted by US and British operatives and their hired thugs. 

‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ brought death and destruction to an entire country of 26 million people. It is among the world’s worst crimes against humanity and it was deliberately and meticulously planned that way.


Joe Quinn (Profile)

Joe Quinn is the co-author of 9/11: The Ultimate Truth (with Laura Knight-Jadczyk, 2006) and Manufactured Terror: The Boston Marathon Bombings, Sandy Hook, Aurora Shooting and Other False Flag Terror Attacks (with Niall Bradley, 2014), and the host of’s The Sott Report Videos and co-host of the ‘Behind the Headlines’ radio show on the Sott Talk Radio network.

An established web-based essayist and print author, Quinn has been writing incisive editorials for for over 10 years. His articles have appeared on many alternative news sites and he has been interviewed on several internet radio shows and has also appeared on Iranian Press TV. His articles can also be found on his personal blog

‘ഗോമാംസം തിന്നാമെന്ന്‌ ആയുര്‍വേദം; കേന്ദ്രസര്‍ക്കാരിന്‌ ശാസ്‌ത്രബോധമില്ല’

‘ഗോമാംസം തിന്നാമെന്ന്‌ ആയുര്‍വേദം; കേന്ദ്രസര്‍ക്കാരിന്‌ ശാസ്‌ത്രബോധമില്ല’



mangalam malayalam online newspaper

ന്യൂഡല്‍ഹി: ബീഫുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട്‌ ഇന്ത്യയില്‍ വലിയ വിവാദങ്ങള്‍ അരങ്ങേറുമ്പോള്‍ ഇന്ത്യയുടെ പുരാതന എഴുത്തുകള്‍ ബീഫ്‌ തീറ്റയെ ഒരു തരത്തിലും നിരോധിച്ചിരുന്നില്ലെന്ന്‌ റിപ്പോര്‍ട്ട്‌. എന്നാല്‍ ചില അസുഖങ്ങള്‍ക്ക്‌ ആയുര്‍വേദ ആചാര്യന്‍ ചരകന്‍ ബീഫ്‌ നിര്‍ദേശിച്ചിരുന്നതായും രാജ്യത്തെ പ്രമുഖ ശാസ്‌ത്രജ്‌ഞരില്‍ ഒരാളായ പി എം ഭാര്‍ഗവയാണ്‌ വ്യക്‌തമാക്കിയത്‌.

പദ്‌മഭൂഷന്‍ പുരസ്‌ക്കാരം തിരിച്ചു നല്‍കുന്നതിന്റെ ഭാഗമായി രാഷ്‌ട്രപതി പ്രണബ്‌ മുഖര്‍ജിക്കുള്ള കത്തിലാണ്‌ അദ്ദേഹം ഇക്കാര്യം പറഞ്ഞിട്ടുള്ളത്‌. ഇക്കാര്യം ആദ്യം റിപ്പോര്‍ട്ട്‌ ചെയ്യപ്പെട്ടത്‌ അസഹിഷ്‌ണുതാ വിവാദത്തില്‍ 1986 ല്‍ ലഭിച്ച പുരസ്‌ക്കാരം 87 കാരനായ ഭാര്‍ഗവ തിരിച്ചുകൊടുക്കാന്‍ തീരുമാനിച്ച ഒക്‌ടോബര്‍ 29 നാണ്‌. ഉദരസംബന്ധിയായ ചില രോഗങ്ങള്‍, അസാധാരണ പനികള്‍, വരണ്ട ചുമ, തളര്‍ച്ച, കഠിന ജോലിയെ തുടര്‍ന്നുണ്ടാകുന്ന പ്രശ്‌നങ്ങള്‍ എന്നിവയ്‌ക്ക് ഗോമാംസം ഉത്തമമാണെന്ന്‌ ചരകസംഹിതയില്‍ പറയുന്നതായി ഭാര്‍ഗവ പറയുന്നു.

ദാദ്രി സംഭവത്തിന്റെ പശ്‌ചാത്തലം സൂചിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്‌ എന്തു ഭക്ഷിക്കണമെന്ന്‌ പോലും ബിജെപി തീരുമാനിക്കുന്നു എന്നതാണ്‌. ഇത്‌ എന്ത്‌ ധരിക്കണം ആരെ പ്രണയിക്കാണും എന്ത്‌ വായിക്കണം എന്നു കൂടി തീരുമാനിക്കുമെന്നാണെന്നും അദ്ദേഹം പറഞ്ഞു. ശാസ്‌ത്രത്തെക്കുറിച്ച്‌ തീരെ വിവരവുമില്ലാത്തവന്മാരുടെ സര്‍ക്കാര്‍ എന്ന്‌ അദ്ദേഹം കേന്ദ്രസര്‍ക്കാരിനെ സംബോധന ചെയ്‌തു. 65 വര്‍ഷത്തെ പരിചയമുള്ള ശാസ്‌ത്രജ്‌ഞനാണ്‌ താന്‍. ശാസ്‌ത്ര വിഷയത്തില്‍ അനേകം തവണ വിവിധ സര്‍ക്കാരുമായി ഇടപെടേണ്ടി വന്നിട്ടുണ്ട്‌. എന്നാല്‍ ശാസ്‌ത്രത്തെക്കുറിച്ച്‌ വിവരം തീരെ കുറഞ്ഞ സര്‍ക്കാരാണ്‌ ഇപ്പോഴത്തേത്‌.

മത അസഹിഷ്‌ുതയുടെ നിലവിലെ കാലാവസ്‌ഥ വികസനം ലക്ഷ്യമിട്ടുള്ള ശാസ്‌ത്ര നിര്‍മ്മിതിയ്‌ക്ക് വന്‍ തടസ്സമാണ്‌. ബിജെപിയും ആര്‍എസ്‌എസുമാണ്‌ ഇതിന്‌ പിന്നില്‍. ബിജെപി ആര്‍എസ്‌എസിന്റെ രാഷ്‌ട്രീയ മുഖമാണ്‌. ആര്‍എസ്‌എസ്‌ ആണ്‌ അതിന്റെ നയ ആശയരൂപീകരണം നടത്തുന്നതെന്നും അദ്ദേഹം പറഞ്ഞു. ശാസ്‌ത്രീയ വീക്ഷണങ്ങളിലൂടെ അന്ധവിശ്വാസത്തില്‍ നിന്നും ജനങ്ങളെ മോചിപ്പിക്കുക എന്നത്‌ പൗരന്റെ കടമയായി ഭരണഘടനയില്‍ പറഞ്ഞിട്ടുണ്ട്‌. എന്നാല്‍ ആര്‍എസ്‌എസും ബിജെപിയും ഇതിന്‌ എതിര്‌ നില്‍ക്കുകയാണ്‌.

വിവാഹം എന്നാല്‍ സ്‌ത്രീകള്‍ വീട്ടുജോലി ചെയ്യുക എന്നതിന്റെ കരാറാണെന്നും അല്ലാതെ പുറത്ത്‌ പോയി ജോലി ചെയ്യുകയല്ലെന്നും ആര്‍എസ്‌എസ്‌ നേതാവ്‌ മോഹന്‍ ഭഗവത്‌ പറഞ്ഞത്‌ ഇതിന്‌ ഉദാഹരണമാണെന്നും അദ്ദേഹം പറഞ്ഞു. എംഎം കല്‍ബുര്‍ഗി, ദബോല്‍ക്കര്‍, ഗോവിന്ദ്‌ പന്‍സാരെ എന്നിവരെ കൊന്നതിന്റെ പേരില്‍ ഓണ്‍ലൈന്‍ പെറ്റീഷനില്‍ ഒപ്പുവെച്ച 100 ശാസ്‌ത്രജ്‌ഞന്മാരില്‍ ഒരാളാണ്‌ ഭാര്‍ഗവ.

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മുസ്‌ലിം ഭരണാധികാരികള്‍ മതേതരര്‍ ആയിരുന്നു, ഔറംഗസീബും: കട്ജു

ഇന്ത്യാ ചരിത്രത്തില്‍ ഏറ്റവുമധികം വിമര്‍ശന വിധേയരായ ഭരണാധികാരികളിലൊരാളാണ് മുഗള്‍ ചക്രവര്‍ത്തിയായിരുന്ന ഔറംഗസീബ്. തീവ്ര മതവിശ്വാസിയായിരുന്ന അദ്ദേഹം മതഭ്രാന്തനും അന്യമത വിരോധിയുമാണെന്ന് ഒരുവിഭാഗം ചരിത്രകാരന്മാര്‍ വാദിക്കുന്നു. എന്നാല്‍ മറ്റൊരു വിഭാഗമാകട്ടെ, മറ്റ് ചക്രവര്‍ത്തിമാരില്‍ നിന്ന് തീര്‍ത്തും വ്യത്യസ്തനായി, ഖജനാവിലെ പണം സ്വന്തം ആവശ്യങ്ങള്‍ക്കു വേണ്ടി തൊടുക പോലും ചെയ്യാതെ, തൊപ്പി തുന്നിയും ഖുര്‍ആന്‍ എഴുതിയുമാണ് ഔറംഗസീബ് ജീവിതവൃത്തി കഴിച്ചിരുന്നതെന്നും പ്രജകള്‍ക്കിടയില്‍ അദ്ദേഹം നീതി പുലര്‍ത്തിയിരുന്നു എന്നും പറയുന്നു. ഖജനാവ് ധൂര്‍ത്തടിച്ച് മന്ദിരങ്ങള്‍ കെട്ടിപ്പൊക്കിയതിന് സ്വന്തം പിതാവായ ഷാജഹാനെ തന്നെ തടവിലിട്ട ഔറംഗസീബിന്റെ നടപടി വിമര്‍ശിക്കപ്പെടുകയും പ്രശംസിക്കപ്പെടുകയും ചെയ്തിട്ടുണ്ട്.
ചരിത്രകാരന്മാര്‍ക്കിടയില്‍ അഭിപ്രായ വ്യത്യാസമുള്ള ഔറംഗസീബിനെക്കുറിച്ച് മുന്‍ സുപ്രീം കോടതി ജഡ്ജ് മാര്‍ക്കണ്ഡേയ കട്ജു ഫേസ്ബുക്കില്‍ കുറിച്ച പോസ്റ്റ് ശ്രദ്ധേയമാവുകയാണ്. ഔറംഗസീബിനെപ്പറ്റിയുള്ള അനുകൂലവും പ്രതികൂലവുമായ വിശദീകരണങ്ങള്‍ തന്റെ നിരീക്ഷണ, പഠനങ്ങളുടെ പശ്ചാത്തലത്തില്‍ അവതരിപ്പിക്കുകയാണ് അദ്ദേഹം.
പോസ്റ്റിന്റെ പൂര്‍ണ രൂപം:
ഇന്ത്യയിലെ ഏതാണ്ടെല്ലാ മുസ്ലിം ഭരണാധികാരികളും മതേതരര്‍ ആയിരുന്നു. തങ്ങളുടെ ഭരണീയരില്‍ ബഹുഭൂരിപക്ഷവും ഹിന്ദുക്കളായിരുന്നതിനാല്‍ അങ്ങനെയാവുക എന്നത് അവരുടെ താല്‍പര്യവുമായിരുന്നു. കാരണം, അവര്‍ ഹിന്ദുക്കളെ പീഡിപ്പിച്ചിരുന്നെങ്കില്‍ കലാപങ്ങളും അശാന്തിയും സ്ഥിരമായി ഉണ്ടാകുമായിരുന്നു. ഒരു ഭരണാധികാരിയും അത് ആഗ്രഹിക്കുകയില്ല.
മുഗളന്മാര്‍, അവധിലെയും മുര്‍ഷിദാബാദിലെയും നവാബുമാര്‍, ടിപ്പു സുല്‍ത്താന്‍, ഹൈദരാബാദിലെ നൈസാം തുടങ്ങി അവരില്‍ മിക്കവരും അടിയുറച്ച മതേതരര്‍ ആയിരുന്നു. ഉദാഹരണത്തിന്, അവധിലെ നവാബുമാര്‍ ഹോളിയും ദസറയും ദീപാവലിയും ആഘോഷിച്ചിരുന്നു, രാംലീല തുടങ്ങിയവ സംഘടിപ്പിച്ചിരുന്നു, എല്ലാ മതങ്ങള്‍ക്കും ബഹുമാനം നല്‍കിയിരുന്നു. ടിപ്പു സുല്‍ത്താന്‍ 156 ഹിന്ദു ക്ഷേത്രങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് വാര്‍ഷിക ഗ്രാന്റ് നല്‍കിയിരുന്നു. (ബി.എന്‍ പാണ്ഡെയുടെ History in the Service of Imperialism കാണുക.)
അക്ബര്‍ എല്ലാ മതങ്ങളിലെയും ആളുകളെ പങ്കെടുപ്പിച്ച് ചര്‍ച്ചകള്‍ നടത്തിയിരുന്നു, അവരെ ബഹുമാനിച്ചിരുന്നു. (ഹിംസ വിരോധക് സംഘും മിര്‍സാപൂര്‍ മോഠി കൊറേഷ് ജമാഅത്തും തമ്മിലുള്ള കേസിലെ എന്റെ വിധിന്യായവും ‘അക്ബര്‍ നാമ’യും കാണുക). എല്ലാ മതങ്ങളോടും സഹിഷ്ണുത പുലര്‍ത്തുന്ന സുലഹ് ഏ കുല്‍ എന്ന നയമായിരുന്നു അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റേത്. അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ മകന്‍ ജഹാംഗീര്‍ ഹിന്ദു സാധു ജാദ്‌രൂപിനെ കാണുകയും സംഭാഷണങ്ങള്‍ നടത്തുകയും ചെയ്തിരുന്നു. (ജഹാംഗീര്‍നാമ കാണുക.)
വിവാദം ഔറംഗസേബിനെക്കുറിച്ചാണ്. അലിഗഡ് മുസ്‌ലിം യൂണിവേഴ്‌സിറ്റിയിലെയും അലഹാബാദ് യൂണിവേഴ്‌സിറ്റിയിലെയും നിരവധി ചരിത്ര പ്രൊഫസര്‍മാരോട് അദ്ദേഹത്തെക്കുറിച്ച് ഞാന്‍ ചര്‍ച്ച നടത്തിയിട്ടുണ്ട്. വിചിത്രമെന്ന് പറയട്ടെ, അലിഗഡിലെ പ്രൊഫസര്‍മാര്‍ – അവര്‍ മുസ്‌ലിംകളാണ് – ഔറംഗസീബിനെ വര്‍ഗീയവാദിയായാണ് ഗണിക്കുന്നത്. അതേസമയം, അലഹാബാദ് യൂണിവേഴ്‌സിറ്റിയിലെ പ്രൊഫസര്‍മാര്‍ – ഹിന്ദുക്കള്‍ – അദ്ദേഹത്തെ സെക്യുലര്‍ ആയും കാണുന്നു. ഏതാണ് ശരിയായ നിരീക്ഷണം?
കൂടുതല്‍ ഗവേഷണം നടക്കേണ്ടതുണ്ടെന്നാണ് എന്റെ അഭിപ്രായം.
ഔറംഗസീബിന്റെ കാലത്ത് നിരവധി ഹിന്ദു ക്ഷേത്രങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് ഗ്രാന്റ് നല്‍കിയതായി തെളിവുകളുണ്ട്. ഉജ്ജയ്‌നിലെ മഹാകാല്‍ ക്ഷേത്രം, ചിത്രകൂട് ക്ഷേത്രം തുടങ്ങിയവ. (അലഹാബാദ് യൂണിവേഴ്‌സിറ്റിയിലെ മുന്‍ പ്രൊഫസറും ഒറീസ ഗവര്‍ണറുമായിരുന്ന ഡോ. പി.എന്‍ പാണ്ഡെ രാജ്യസഭയില്‍ നടത്തിയ History in the Service of Imperialism എന്ന പ്രസംഗം കാണുക). ഔറംഗസബ് ഭരണകൂടം ഹിന്ദു ക്ഷേത്രങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് നല്‍കിയ ഗ്രാന്റുകളുടെ വിശദാംശങ്ങളുണ്ട്. ഔറംഗസീബിന്റെ സൈന്യത്തിലെ രാജാ ജയ്‌സിങ് അടക്കമുള്ള പല കമാന്‍ഡര്‍മാരും ഹിന്ദുക്കളായിരുന്നു.
കുറച്ചുനാള്‍ മുമ്പ് ഞാന്‍ ബിക്കാനീറിലുണ്ടായിരുന്നു. മഹാരാജാവിന്റെ ക്ഷേത്രത്തിന്റെ ഒരു ഭാഗം മ്യൂസിയമാണിപ്പോള്‍. മ്യൂസിയം സന്ദര്‍ശിക്കുന്നതിനിടെ ഔറംഗസീബ് ബിക്കാനീറിലെ പുതിയ മഹാരാജാവിന് അയച്ച കത്ത് ഞാന്‍ കാണുകയുണ്ടായി. പിതാവിന്റെ മരണാനന്തരം ചെറുപ്രായക്കാരനായ മകന്‍ ഭരണം ഏറ്റെടുക്കുകയായിരുന്നു. യുവരാജാവിനെ സാന്ത്വനിപ്പിച്ചുകൊണ്ടുള്ള ഔറംഗസീബിന്റെ കത്തില്‍, പിതാവിന്റെ മരണത്തിന്റെ നഷ്ടം തനിക്കറിയാമെന്ന് പറയുന്നുണ്ട്. ഔറംഗസീബിനെ സ്വന്തം പിതാവായി കരുതണമെന്നും എന്തെങ്കിലും ആവശ്യമുണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ തന്നെ അറിയിക്കണമെന്നും പറഞ്ഞാണ് കത്ത് അവസാനിക്കുന്നത്.
എല്ലാ ഹിന്ദുക്കളെയും വെറുക്കുന്നയാളായിരുന്നു ഔറംഗസീബ് എങ്കില്‍ അദ്ദേഹം അങ്ങനെയൊരു കത്ത് എഴുതുമായിരുന്നോ?
അതേസമയം, തന്റെ പൂര്‍വ പിതാമഹനായ അക്ബര്‍ എടുത്തുകളഞ്ഞിരുന്ന ഹിന്ദുക്കള്‍ക്കു മേലുള്ള ജിസ് യ (നികുതി) ഔറംഗസീബ് പുനഃസ്ഥാപിച്ചു എന്ന കാര്യം നിഷേധിക്കാന്‍ കഴിയില്ല. ഇക്കാര്യം ഞാന്‍ അലബാദാബിലെ പ്രൊഫസര്‍മാരോട് ചൂണ്ടിക്കാണിച്ചപ്പോള്‍ അവര്‍ പറഞ്ഞത്, യുദ്ധാവശ്യങ്ങള്‍ക്കായി ഔറംഗസീബിന് പണം ആവശ്യമായിരുന്നു എന്നാണ്. ഔറംഗസീബിന് യുദ്ധത്തിന് പണം ആവശ്യമായിരുന്നെങ്കില്‍ എല്ലാവര്‍ക്കും നികുതി ഏര്‍പ്പെടുത്തുകയല്ലേ ചെയ്യേണ്ടിയിരുന്നത്?
യഥാര്‍ത്ഥ കാശി വിശ്വനാഥ ക്ഷേത്രം അടക്കമുള്ള നിരവധി ഹിന്ദു ക്ഷേത്രങ്ങള്‍ തകര്‍ത്തു എന്നതാണ് അദ്ദേഹത്തിനെതിരായ കുറ്റം. 18-ാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടില്‍ മഹാറാണി അഹല്യാബായ് ഹോള്‍കര്‍ നിര്‍മിച്ച, നിലവിലുള്ള കാശി ക്ഷേത്രത്തിന്റെ തൊട്ടടുത്ത് നില്‍ക്കുന്ന ജ്ഞാന്‍വാപി മസ്ജിദ് പഴയ കാശി ക്ഷേത്രമാണ്. ജ്ഞാന്‍വാപി മസ്ജിദിന്റെ പിന്‍ഭാഗത്തെ ചുവരുകളില്‍ ഹിന്ദു ശില്പവേലകളുണ്ട്. അത് വളരെ വ്യക്തവുമാണ്.
അപ്പോള്‍ ഏതാണ് യഥാര്‍ത്ഥ ഔറംഗസീബ്?
ഈ രണ്ടിന്റെയും ഇടയിലായിരുന്നു അദ്ദേഹം എന്നാണ് എന്റെ നിരീക്ഷണം. പക്ഷേ, കൂടുതല്‍ ഗവേഷണം ആവശ്യമാണ്. സ്വന്തം ആവശ്യങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് പണം കണ്ടെത്തുന്നതിനായി തൊപ്പി തുന്നിയിരുന്നെങ്കിലും, സ്വന്തം പൂര്‍വികന്മാരുടെ നയങ്ങളില്‍ നിന്നു വ്യത്യസ്തമായ മതഭ്രാന്ത് അദ്ദേഹത്തിനുണ്ടായിരുന്നു. ഇതുകൊണ്ടാണ് നിരവധി രജപുത്രരെയും മറാഠകളെയും സിഖുകളെയും അദ്ദേഹം ശത്രുക്കളാക്കിത്തീര്‍ത്തത്. മുഗള്‍ സാമ്രാജ്യത്തിന്റെ അന്ത്യം വേഗത്തിലാക്കാന്‍ ഇത് കാരണമായി.
1707-ലെ അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ മരണശേഷം മുഗള്‍ സാമ്രാജ്യത്തിന്റെ വ്യാപ്തി ഡല്‍ഹിയിലും പ്രാന്തപ്രദേശങ്ങളിലും മാത്രമായി ഒതുങ്ങി. (സല്‍ത്തനത്തെ ഷാഹ് ആലം, അസ് ദില്ലി താ പലം)
ഔറംഗസീബ് പൂര്‍ണമായും സത്യസന്ധനായിരുന്നുവെങ്കിലും (തൊപ്പി തുന്നിയാണ് അദ്ദേഹം ജീവിതവൃത്തി കഴിച്ചിരുന്നത്), എല്ലാവരെയും ഉള്‍ക്കൊള്ളുന്ന, സഹിഷ്ണുതാപരവും ഇണക്കമുള്ളതുമായ അക്ബറിന്റെ നയമായിരുന്നില്ല അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റേത്. ഇന്ത്യ വൈവിധ്യത്തിന്റെ നാടാണെന്ന് അക്ബറിനറിയാമായിരുന്നു. സഹിഷ്ണുതാപരവും ഇണക്കമുള്ളതുമായ നയം കൊണ്ടുമാത്രമേ സാമ്രാജ്യത്തെ നയിക്കാന്‍ കഴിയൂ എന്നും അദ്ദേഹം തിരിച്ചറിഞ്ഞു. ഈ തിരിച്ചറിവാണ് ഔറംഗസീബിന് ഇല്ലാതിരുന്നത്.
ഏതായാലും ഇത് എന്റെ താല്‍ക്കാലികമായ അഭിപ്രായമാണ്. വസ്തുതാപരമായ പഠനം വിദഗ്ധര്‍ നടത്തേണ്ടിയിരിക്കുന്നു.

AP Aboobaker Moulavi Banned in Saudi Arabia

കാന്തപുരത്തിന് സൗദി അറേബ്യയില്‍ വിലക്ക്

കാന്തപുരത്തിന് സൗദി അറേബ്യയില്‍ വിലക്ക്

റിയാദ് : സമസ്ത കേരള ജംഇയ്യത്തുൽ ഉലമ(എ.പി വിഭാഗം) ജനറൽ സെക്രട്ടറി കാന്തപുരം അബൂബക്കര്‍ മുസലിയാരുടെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് സൗദി അറേബ്യ മതകാര്യ മന്ത്രാലയം വിലക്കേര്‍പ്പെടുത്തി. ഇസ്ലാം മതത്തിനു വിരുദ്ധമായി പ്രവര്‍ത്തിച്ചുവെന്ന് ചൂണ്ടിക്കാട്ടിയാണ് കാന്തപുരത്തിനും അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ സംഘടനാ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനങ്ങള്‍ക്കും വിലക്കേര്‍പ്പെടുത്തിയത്. സൗദി ഗ്രാന്‍ഡ്‌ മുഫ്തിയുടേയും മതകാര്യ മന്ത്രാലയം മക്ക കേന്ദ്രത്തിന്റെയും കത്തുകളുടെ അടിസ്ഥാനത്തിലാണ് മതകാര്യ മന്ത്രാലയത്തിന്റെ ഉത്തരവ്. ഇന്ത്യയിലെ ബറെല്‍വി ചിന്താധാരയുടെ തെക്കേഇന്ത്യയിലെ വക്താവാണ്‌ കാന്തപുരമെന്നും സെപ്റ്റംബര്‍ ആറിനു പുറത്തിറക്കിയ ഉത്തരവ് പറയുന്നു. സൗദിയില്‍ കാന്തപുരത്തിന്റെ പരിപാടികള്‍ നടക്കുന്നുടെങ്കില്‍ അറിയിക്കണമെന്നും സര്‍ക്കുലറില്‍ ആവശ്യപ്പെട്ടിട്ടുണ്ട്. വിലക്ക് ഈ മാസം ആറിന് നിലവില്‍ വന്നതാണെങ്കിലും കഴിഞ്ഞദിവസം ദമാമില്‍ നടത്താനിരുന്ന പരിപാടി തടഞ്ഞതോടെയാണ് സംഭവം പുറത്തറിയുന്നത്. AP-CIRCULAR

America Vs Russia






With Putin’s entry into the Levant, the fate of the United States is sealed – the Zionists WILL push the United States into war with Russia.  Amerika, the police state-run by the Jewocons will be destroyed. The Jews have used her up, having milked her dry they will not tolerate the whore who no longer does her bidding.

obama-is a retard has no idea that netanyahu created the crisis

Obama has committed triple mortal sins in the face of the godly chosen ones, first he did not strike Iran, then he negotiated an Iran nuclear agreement that Bibi mightily opposed, now he has really done it, like a goof he let Russia take over Syria.  Russia is in Syria to stay and the great Jew dream of an Israel superstate is now dead as a doornail.

The vassal whore state Amerika will now be executed for her crimes against Israel.  Surviving Americans will be left to fend for themselves in nuclear wasteland.  It is your job to be aware that America is on the brink of destruction because of the insanity coming out of Washington D.C. and prepare for the worst possible scenario – the sellout whores in D.C. provoke a nuclear attack.AmericaDeathWW3russiaMeme

The nation is finished, deeply in debt, there is no way out, the debts can not be paid.  The financial world is foolish funding this runaway spending spree that is used by the war department to raze much of the Islamic world.  With no plan of salvation, the confused whore Amerikan nation knows not what to do, but is resisting suicide and not attacking Iran as Netanyahu demands.

how do the exponential debts of the usa end

Unable to change America lumbers forward but now has made a fatal mistake, Obama has allowed Putin to take Syria which terminates the Greater Israel project.   To survive, the aggressor and parasite Israel must expand outward – but now it can not.  Israel is doomed and now the Jews will turn on the whore.


Israel will respond only one way for this failure – severe punishment. Israel will now manuever the USA into war with Russia, disposing of the American ally that no longer does her bidding.  Israel attacks America over and over (USS Liberty, WTC in 1993 and 2001) and Americans do nothing except lapping the feet of their Jewish masters.

The purpose of the Jewish owned Federal Reserve was to strip the American industrial nation of her wealth.  They did this over the past one hundred years, leaving America deeply in debt without manufacturing jobs.  America now is a zombie shell of a nation awaiting execution – there is no plan for our recovery, just our deletion.  America is on death row, completely demoralized and unable to rise to her defense, America will be rubbed out.




Israel is completely ruthless – it will destroy any and all nations that stand in her way of global hegemony.  Look at what Israel did to Syria in the last five years – turning every city into rubble, killing 250,000, wounding one million, displacing 10 million.  Millions upon millions of Syrians are running for their lives.  Whore Obama did what he was told, helping Netanyahu destroy another state – this is a huge crime yet Obama still is in office.NetanyahuIsraelEvilMeme

Like Obama, Tony Blair escaped punishment and war tribunals for his collusion with Bush, Blair now says he’s sorry for trashing the entire nation of Iraq.  These leaders need to be put away, the world is insane to allow them to continue influencing foreign policy.  The leadership of the West is clearly insane and these whores will help the Jews destroy their host nations.

Nuclear War with russia likely obama whore idiot

Likewise, the United States can be turned into smoking rubble in a blink of an eye.  Unlike World War 2, nuclear weapons are plentiful, sophisticated with advanced guidance systems – and they can not be stopped.  Stupid Brits and Americans are now openly provoking the Russian Bear, which suffers no illusions having been repeatedly attacked by the Western nations in the past.



As we head into the 2016 Presidential election, Democratic front-runner Hillary Clinton is already talking war with Russia.  She (along with many other Presidential candidates) wants to establish a no fly zone over Syria.  This is, of course, completely insane, because the Russians already owns the Syrian skies with their sea and land based S-300 missile system.


There is no-fly zone for Jews and their British and American whore allies.  Only a lunatic would suggest taking on Russia and that is exactly what most of the Presidential candidates are saying forcefully on the Jewish controlled media.  As the world watches the spectacle of American elections, the shilling for Israel has reached epic proportions, spurring Ann Coulter to feverishly react to the joke called candidates.


These insane comments from those seeking the highest office proves not only the whore vassal state of America, but that the political players are complete idiots and seriously dangerous.


Russia is monitoring us and eventually the Russia strategists will conclude that America is going down a path of no return, and that it must act first.  The Zionist controlled nation America has no way out beside nuclear termination – her fate is sealed.  We must come to our senses and realize the Jew enemy within.  Military powerful America was not match for the Trojan Horse inside the gates – organized Jewry.


Amerika has lost it’s mind, the nation drifts toward pure insanity, like a ship without a rudder that is going down the captain of the ship can’t steer Amerika clear of the upcoming disaster.  The nation is gone, it is looking for and executioner.  Are we going to just let ourselves get nuked because of the nutcases provoking Russia – how about a military counter coup – arrest the dual citizens.IsraelRussiaJewsMeme

Israel could switch sides and become allied with Russia – and dispose of Amerika while allied with the Russians.  Crafty Jews have a long history of success, they will find a way, believe me they will find a way so you better prepare for the worse case scenario.  Looking at the Zionist track record, I think Americans should take the Israeli threat seriously.


Fool American Christians will be worshipping Israel right up to the bitter end. The huge CUFI organization is fanning the flames of nuclear war, it is a Jewish psyop on the American mind, Americans are afraid to take on Israel!


Never in the history of mankind has there ever been such a pathetic nation as America to allow a little shit Jew state do her in.  If the leadership of America was sane they would immediately take out Tel Aviv, get a first strike in and destroy Israel while they still can.  We must strike Israel first, and don’t forget to take out Rothschild – the source of it all.



ഫരീദാബാദില്‍ ദളിതര്‍ കൂട്ടത്തോടെ ഇസ്ലാമിലേക്ക്


സവര്‍ണരുടെ ആക്രമണത്തില്‍ നിന്ന് രക്ഷനേടാന്‍ മതപരിവര്‍ത്തനമല്ലാതെ മാര്‍ഗമില്ല; ദളിത് കുടുംബത്തെ ജീവനോടെ തീകൊളുത്തിയ ഫരീദാബാദില്‍ ദളിതര്‍ കൂട്ടത്തോടെ ഇസ്ലാമിലേക്ക്

വെബ്‌ ഡസ്ക്
October21/ 2015

ഫരീദാബാദ്: സവര്‍ണരുടെ ജാതിവെറിക്ക് ഇരയാകുന്ന ഫരീദാബാദിലെ ദളിത് കുടുംബങ്ങള്‍ ഇസ്ലാം മതത്തിലേക്ക് പരിവര്‍ത്തനം ചെയ്യുന്നു. ഉന്നത ജാതിക്കാരുടെ ഭീഷണിയില്‍ നിന്നും പീഡനത്തില്‍ നിന്നും രക്ഷനേടാന്‍ മതപരിവര്‍ത്തനമല്ലാതെ മറ്റു മാര്‍ഗങ്ങളില്ലെന്നാണ് ദളിതരുടെ നിലപാട്. ഒരുവിഭാഗം കീഴ്ജാതിക്കാര്‍ ഇസ്ലാം മതം സ്വീകരിക്കുന്നതിനുള്ള ആഗ്രഹം പ്രകടിപ്പിക്കുകയും ചെയ്തു. കഴിഞ്ഞ ദിവസം ഫരീദാബാദില്‍ ദളിത് കുടുംബത്തെ ജീവനോടെ തീകൊളുത്തിയ സംഭവം കൂടി അരങ്ങേറിയത് ജനങ്ങളില്‍ ഭീതി പരത്തിയിട്ടുണ്ട്. ഇതുകൂടിയായതോടെ ഇസ്ലാമിലേക്ക് ചേക്കേറാനുള്ള തയ്യാറെടുപ്പിലാണ് ഒരുവിഭാഗം ദളിതര്‍.

ഉന്നതജാതിക്കാര്‍ സ്ഥിരമായി വളരെ ചെറിയ കാര്യങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് പോലും പീഡിപ്പിക്കുകയാണെന്ന് ദളിതര്‍ പരാതിപ്പെടുന്നു. അഴുക്കുചാലില്‍ വീണ മൊബൈല്‍ ഫോണ്‍ എടുത്താല്‍ പോലും പീഡനം നേരിടുന്നു. സ്ത്രീകളോട് അപമര്യാദയായി പെരുമാറുകയും ഭീഷണിപ്പെടുത്തുകയും ചെയ്യാറുണ്ട്. ഞങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് ഒരു സുരക്ഷിതത്വവും ഇല്ല. സര്‍ക്കാര്‍ പോലും ഞങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് സുരക്ഷ ഒരുക്കുന്നില്ല. ഈ സാഹചര്യത്തില്‍ ഇസ്ലാം മതത്തിലേക്ക് മാറുകയല്ലാതെ തങ്ങളുടെ മുന്നില്‍ മറ്റു മാര്‍ഗമില്ലെന്ന് ദളിതര്‍ പറയുന്നു.

ഫരീദാബാദ് സംഭവത്തിന് ഉത്തരവാദി കമ്മീഷണര്‍ ആണെന്നും ക്രമസമാധാനം പാലിക്കുന്നതില്‍ കമ്മീഷണര്‍ പരാജയപ്പെട്ടെന്നും ഗ്രാമവാസികള്‍ കുറ്റപ്പെടുത്തുന്നു. സംഭവത്തില്‍ നല്‍കിയ പരാതികള്‍ പൊലീസും പഞ്ചായത്ത് ഭരണകൂടവും അവഗണിക്കുകയായിരുന്നു. കഴിഞ്ഞ ദിവസം അയല്‍ ഗ്രാമമായ അസവതി ഗ്രാമത്തിലെ ഒരു പെണ്‍കുട്ടിയെ ഉന്നതജാതിയില്‍ പെട്ട ഒരു യുവാവ് തട്ടിക്കൊണ്ടു പോകുകയും പിന്നീട് പെണ്‍കുട്ടിയെ അബോധാവസ്ഥയില്‍ കാണപ്പെടുകയായിരുന്നു. എന്നാല്‍, ലൈംഗിക പീഡനത്തിന് നല്‍കിയ പരാതി പോലും പൊലീസ് അവഗണിച്ചു. പെണ്‍കുട്ടിയെ ഉപദ്രവിച്ചത് കാമുകനാണെന്നായിരുന്നു പൊലീസിന്റെ വാദം. സന്‍പേദ് ഗ്രാമത്തിലെ ആകെ ജനസംഖ്യ 1,400 ആണ്. ഇതില്‍ തന്നെ 75 ശതമാനവും ഉന്നതജാതിക്കാരാണ്.

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രോഗം മാറാന്‍ യോഗ ചെയ്തിട്ടു കാര്യമില്ല; ആ ചിന്ത വെറും വിഡ്ഢിത്തം; മാനസിക-ശാരീരിക ആരോഗ്യം പ്രദാനം ചെയ്യുന്നമെന്നത് വിശ്വാസം മാത്രം

രോഗം മാറാന്‍ യോഗ ചെയ്തിട്ടു കാര്യമില്ല; ആ ചിന്ത വെറും വിഡ്ഢിത്തം; മാനസിക-ശാരീരിക ആരോഗ്യം പ്രദാനം ചെയ്യുന്നമെന്നത് വിശ്വാസം മാത്രം 

 രോഗം മാറാന്‍ യോഗ ചെയ്തിട്ടു കാര്യമില്ല; ആ ചിന്ത വെറും വിഡ്ഢിത്തം; മാനസിക-ശാരീരിക ആരോഗ്യം പ്രദാനം ചെയ്യുന്നമെന്നത് വിശ്വാസം മാത്രം ഹാരി October 30 / 2015

യോഗ ശീലിച്ചാല്‍ കൈവരുന്ന ശാരീരിക മാനസിക ശേഷിയെക്കുറിച്ച് കേള്‍ക്കാത്തവര്‍ ചുരുക്കമായിരിക്കും. ആത്മീയതയുടെ മേമ്പൊടി കൂടി ചേരുന്നത് കൊണ്ട് സര്‍വ്വരോഗസംഹാരിയും ചോദ്യം ചെയ്യാന്‍ പാടില്ലാത്തതുമായി യോഗ മാറി. പ്രമേഹം, ഹൃദ്രോഗം, കൊളസ്‌ട്രോള്‍, പൊണ്ണത്തടി, മാനസിക രോഗങ്ങള്‍ എന്ന് വേണ്ട മനുഷ്യന്റെ എല്ലാ ശാരീരിക മാനസിക പ്രശ്‌നങ്ങള്‍ക്കുമുള്ള ഒറ്റമൂലിയെന്ന നിലയിലാണ് യോഗ അവതരിപ്പിക്കപ്പെടുന്നത്. ഇതില്‍ എന്തെങ്കിലും വാസ്തവമുണ്ടോ. ചരിത്രം പതഞ്ജലി മഹര്‍ഷിയാണ് ആത്മീയജീവിതം നയിക്കുന്നവര്‍ക്കായി യോഗ അവതരിപ്പിച്ചത്. യമം, നിയമം, ആസനം, പ്രാണായാമം, പ്രത്യാഹാരം, ധാരണ, ധ്യാനം, സമാധി എന്നിങ്ങനെ സന്യാസ ജീവിതത്തില്‍ അനുഷ്ഠിക്കേണ്ട കര്‍മ്മങ്ങളെക്കുറിച്ച് 195 സൂക്തങ്ങളിലായാണ് പതഞ്ജലിയുടെവിശദീകരണം. അദ്ദേഹം മുന്നോട്ട് വെച്ച യോഗശാസ്ത്രം വ്യായാമസ്ഥിതികളല്ല, മനസ്സിന്റെ സമചിത്തത അഥവാ സമാധിസ്ഥിതിയായിരുന്നു. ചിത്തവൃത്തിനിരോധനമായിരുന്നു അതിന്റെ ലക്ഷ്യം. പതിനഞ്ചാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടില്‍ സ്വാമി സ്വാത്മാരാമ രചിച്ച ഹഠയോഗ പ്രദീപികയിലാണ് ഇന്ന് പ്രചരിക്കും വിധമുള്ള വ്യായാമമുറകളുള്ളത്.

പ്രാചീനഭാരത്തില്‍ സാധാരണക്കാരോ, രാജാക്കന്മാരോ യോഗ അഭ്യസിച്ചിരുന്നില്ല. 1888-ല്‍ കര്‍ണ്ണാടക സ്വദേശി ടി. കൃഷ്ണമാചാരി മൈസൂര്‍ രാജാവായ കൃഷ്ണദേവ വോഡയാറിനെ യോഗ പഠിപ്പിച്ചതോടെയാണു യോഗക്ക് ആദ്യമായി ഔദ്യോഗിക അംഗീകാരം ലഭിക്കുന്നത്. ഹഠയോഗയില്‍നിന്നു കൃഷ്ണമാചാരി ആവിഷ്‌കരിച്ചതും പിന്നീട് അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ ശിഷ്യന്‍മാര്‍ രൂപപ്പെടുത്തിയതുമായ ആസനങ്ങള്‍ ഇന്നു കാണുന്ന യോഗ. യോഗ വിദേശത്ത് ബി. എസ് അയ്യങ്കാര്‍ എന്ന യോഗാഗുരു വയലിനിസ്റ്റ് യഹൂദി മെനൂഹിനെ യോഗാസനങ്ങള്‍ പഠിപ്പിച്ചതാണ് പാശ്ചാത്യലോകത്ത് യോഗ പ്രചരിക്കാന്‍ നിമിത്തമായത്. സംഗീതപരിപാടിയോട് അനുബന്ധിച്ച് അയ്യങ്കാറുടെ യോഗാ പ്രദര്‍ശനം വേദിയില്‍ സംഘടിപ്പിച്ചതിലൂടെ ലക്ഷക്കണക്കിന് വരുന്ന യഹൂദിയുടെ ആരാധകര്‍ യോഗയിലും ആകൃഷ്ടരായി. ഇന്ന് യൂറോപ്യന്‍ രാജ്യങ്ങളില്‍ ചിരപരിചിതമാണ് യോഗ. യോഗക്ക് ശാരീരികദൃഢത നല്‍കാനുള്ള ശേഷിയുണ്ടോ ? പ്രധാനമായും മൂന്നു തരം വ്യായാമപദ്ധതികളുടെ സമന്വയത്തെയാണു സമ്പൂര്‍ണ്ണ വ്യായാമമെന്ന നിലയില്‍ ആധുനിക ശാസ്ത്രം അംഗീകരിക്കുന്നത്.

എയറോബിക്, അനയറോബിക്, ഫ്‌ളെക്‌സിബിലിറ്റി അഥവാ സ്‌ട്രെച്ചിംഗ് വ്യായാമങ്ങള്‍ എന്നിവയാണവ. പ്രധാന വ്യായാമത്തിന് മുന്‍പ് ശരീരത്തെ പാകപ്പെടുത്താനുള്ള വാം അപ്, അനയറോബികിലെ തന്നെ ഐസോടോണിക്, ഐസോമെട്രിക് തുടങ്ങി അവാന്തരവിഭാഗങ്ങള്‍ വേറെയുമുണ്ട്. എങ്കിലും ആദ്യം സൂചിപ്പിച്ച മൂന്ന് തരമാണ് പ്രധാനവ്യായാമങ്ങള്‍. എയറോബിക് എക്‌സര്‍സൈസ് കൂടുതല്‍ ഓക്‌സിജന്‍ ശരീരത്തില്‍ എത്തുന്നതും ഹൃദയാരോഗ്യത്തിന് ഉതകുന്നതുമായ വ്യായാമമുറകളാണ്. നടത്തം, ഓട്ടം, നീന്തല്‍, ൈസക്കളിംഗ് തുടങ്ങിയവ ഉദാഹരണം. അനെയറോബിക് എക്‌സര്‍സൈസ് അഥവാ ഭാരം ഉപയോഗിച്ചുള്ള വ്യായാമങ്ങളാണ് രണ്ടാമത്തേത്. ഡംബലുകളും മറ്റും ഉപയോഗിച്ചുള്ള വ്യായാമങ്ങള്‍ ഉദാഹരണം. ശരീരത്തിന് വഴക്കം കിട്ടാനും വ്യായാമത്തിലൂടെ വികസിച്ച മസിലുകളെ പൂര്‍വ്വസ്ഥിതിയിലേക്കു കൊണ്ടുവരാനും സഹായിക്കുന്നതാണ് മൂന്നാമതായി പരാമര്‍ശിച്ച ഫ്‌ളക്‌സിബിലിറ്റി വ്യായാമങ്ങള്‍ അഥവാ സ്‌ട്രെച്ചിംഗ് എക്‌സര്‍ സൈസുകള്‍. യോഗ ഈ മൂന്നാമത്തെ വിഭാഗത്തില്‍ പെട്ട ഒരുസ്‌ട്രെച്ചിംഗ് വ്യായാമ മുറ മാത്രമാണ്.

ഇതര വ്യായാമങ്ങള്‍ ചെയ്യുമ്പോള്‍ ഉണ്ടാകുന്ന കലോറി ബേണിംഗ്, അഥവാ ഊര്‍ജ്ജവിനിയോഗം എന്ന പ്രക്രിയ ഏറ്റവും കുറവ് സംഭവിക്കുന്നത് സെട്രെച്ചിംഗ് വ്യായാമങ്ങളിലാണ്. ശരാശരി ആരോഗ്യവാനായ ഒരാളുടെ ഹൃദയമിടിപ്പ് മിനിട്ടില്‍ 60 മുതല്‍ 100 വരെയാണ്. ഈ ഹൃദയമിടിപ്പ് ഏതാണ്ട് 140 കടന്നെങ്കില്‍ മാത്രമേ കൊഴുപ്പ് ഉരുകല്‍ പ്രക്രിയ അഥവാ കലോറി ബേണിംഗ് ആരംഭിക്കുന്നുള്ളൂ. വിവിധതരം ഇരിപ്പുകളാണല്ലോ യോഗാസനങ്ങള്‍. ഇരിക്കുന്ന അവസ്ഥയില്‍ പരിമിതമായ ഊര്‍ജ്ജം മാത്രമേ വിനിയോഗിക്കുന്നുള്ളൂ. അതുകൊണ്ടാണ് അമേരിക്കന്‍ കൗണ്‍സില്‍ ഓഫ് എക്‌സൈര്‍സൈസ് വര്‍ഷങ്ങള്‍ നീണ്ട ഗവേഷണങ്ങള്‍ക്കൊടുവില്‍ ഹൃദയാരോഗ്യത്തിന് യോഗ ഒരു പ്രയോജനവും ചെയ്യുന്നില്ലെന്ന് കണ്ടെത്തിയത്. യോഗ ശീലിക്കുന്ന പുരുഷന്മാരില്‍ വളരെ വേഗം പേശീനഷ്ടം സംഭവിക്കുകയും ശരീരം സ്‌ത്രൈണമാവുകയും ചെയ്യും. യോഗ മാനസിക ആരോഗ്യത്തെ മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്തുമോ? ഇല്ലെന്നാണ് ശാസ്ത്രീയ വിശദീകരണം. എറയോബിക്, അനയറോബിക് വ്യായാമങ്ങള്‍ ചെയ്യുമ്പോള്‍ തലച്ചോറില്‍ എന്‍ഡോര്‍ഫിന്‍ എന്ന രാസവസ്തു ഉണ്ടാകും. മൂഡ് എലവേറ്റര്‍ ഹോര്‍മോണ്‍ എന്നും ഹാപ്പി ഹോര്‍മോണ്‍ എന്നും അറിപ്പെടുന്ന എന്‍ഡോര്‍ഫിന്‍ മാനസിക സമ്മര്‍ദ്ദത്തെ അകറ്റുന്നതാണ്. അരമണിക്കൂര്‍ നടക്കുമ്പോള്‍ തലച്ചോറില്‍ ഉല്‍പ്പാദിപ്പിക്കുന്ന എന്‍ഡോര്‍ഫിന്റെ പത്തിലൊരംശം പോലും നാലു മണിക്കൂര്‍ യോഗ ചെയ്താല്‍ കിട്ടില്ല. യോഗ ചെയ്യുമ്പോള്‍ മാനസിക സുഖം ലഭിച്ചു എന്ന് പറയുന്നത് ഉണര്‍വ്വ് യോഗങ്ങള്‍ വഴി രോഗശാന്തി കിട്ടി എന്ന് പറയുന്നപോലെ വൈയക്തികമായ ഒരു അനുഭവമോ വിശ്വാസമോ ആണ്.

Placebo ഇഫക്റ്റ്’ എന്ന് ആധുനിക ശാസ്ത്രം പറയുന്ന, മറ്റുള്ളവരുടെ പ്രേരണയാലോ സ്വന്തമായോരോഗം മാറിയെന്നു തോന്നുന്ന അവസ്ഥ മാത്രമാണത്. യോഗയെക്കുറിച്ചു ശാസ്ത്രീയപഠനം നടത്തിയ ഗാരി ക്രാഫ്ട്‌സോ രചിച്ച ഫോര്‍ ട്രാന്‍സ്‌ഫോര്‍മേഷന്‍’ എന്ന പുസ്തകത്തില്‍ യോഗയുടെ അപകടങ്ങളും അശാസ്ത്രീയതും ഓരോന്നായി അക്കമിട്ടു പറയുന്നു.ശരീരത്തിന്റെ രക്തചംക്രമണ വ്യവസ്ഥയെ തകിടം മറിക്കുന്ന ശീര്‍ഷാസനം പോലുള്ള അപകടകരമായ ആസനങ്ങളെക്കുറിച്ചും ഈപുസ്തകം മുന്നറിയിപ്പ്‌നല്‍കുന്നു . ശരീരത്തിന് വഴക്കം കിട്ടുന്നു എന്നത് ഒഴികെ ഒരു പ്രയോജനവുമില്ലാത്ത ഈ കായികാഭ്യാസത്തെ ആത്മീയപരിവേഷം നല്‍കി ഇന്ത്യക്ക് അകത്തും പുറത്തും കോടികളുടെ സാമ്രാജ്യം കെട്ടിപ്പൊക്കിയവര്‍ ഏറെയാണ്. സ്വാമി വിവേകാനന്ദന്‍, മഹര്‍ഷി അരബിന്ദോ, ബ്രഹ്മാനന്ദ ശിവയോഗി തുടങ്ങി ഉന്നത ബൗദ്ധികനിലവാരമുള്ളവര്‍ ഈ കായികാഭ്യാസത്തെ അംഗീകരിച്ചിരുന്നില്ല എന്നതും ഓര്‍ക്കേണ്ടതാണ്.

Dark Matter’s #1 Competitor Died

Image credit: John Dubinski (U of Toronto).

Throwback Thursday: How Dark Matter’s #1 Competitor Died

The only way out is to modify the laws of gravity, and our best observations rule those modifications out.

“The discrepancy between what was expected and what has been observed has grown over the years, and we’re straining harder and harder to fill the gap.” –Jeremiah P. Ostriker

If you have any sort of interest in outer space, the Universe and just what this entire existence is made up of, you’ve probably heard of dark matter — or at least the dark matter problem — before. In brief, let’s take a look at what you might see if you looked out at the Universe with the greatest telescope technology we’ve ever developed as a species.

Image Credit: NASA; ESA; and Z. Levay, STScI / minor modifications by me.

Not this image, of course. This is what you’d see to the significantly aidedhuman eye: a small region of space that contains just a handful of dim, faint stars present within our own galaxy, and apparently nothing beyond it.

What we’ve done is look at not only this region in particular, but many others like it, with incredibly sensitive instruments. Even in a region like this, devoid of bright stars, galaxies, or known clusters or groups, all we have to do is point our cameras at it for arbitrarily long stretches of time. If we let enough go by, we start to collect photons from incredibly faint, distant sources. That tiny box marked “XDF” above is the location of the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, a region so small it would take 32,000,000 of them to cover the entire night sky. And yet, here’s what Hubble saw.

Image credit: NASA; ESA; G. Illingworth, D. Magee, and P. Oesch, University of California, Santa Cruz; R. Bouwens, Leiden University; and the HUDF09 Team.

There are 5,500 unique galaxies identified in this image, meaning that there are at least 200 billion galaxies in the entire Universe. But as impressive as that number is, it’s not even the most impressive thing we’ve learned about the Universe from studying the huge number and diversity of galaxies, groups and clusters within it.

Think about what’s making these galaxies shine, whether right next door to us or tens of billions of light-years away.

Image credit: Morgan-Keenan-Kellman spectral classification, by wikipedia user Kieff; annotations by E. Siegel.

It’s the stars shining within them! Over the past 150 years or so, one of the greatest achievements of astronomy and astrophysics has been our understanding of how stars form, live, die, and shine while they’re alive. When we measure the starlight coming from any one of these galaxies, we can immediately infer exactly how what types of stars are present within it, and what the total mass of the stars inside is.

Hold this in your mind as we move forward: the light we observe from the galaxies, groups and clusters we see tells us how much mass is in that galaxy’s, group’s or cluster’s stars. But starlight isn’t the only thing we can measure!

Image credit: Helene Courtois, Daniel Pomarede, R. Brent Tully, Yehuda Hoffman and Denis Courtois.

We can also measure how these galaxies are moving, how quickly they’re rotating, what their velocities are relative to one another, and so on. This is incredibly powerful, because based on the laws of gravity, if we measure the velocities of these objects, we can infer how much mass-and-matter there must be inside of them!

Think about that for a moment: the law of gravitation is universal, meaning it’s the same everywhere in the Universe. The law that governs the Solar System must be the same as the law that governs the galaxies. And so here we have two different ways of measuring the mass of the largest structures in the Universe:

  1. We can measure the starlight coming from them, and because we know how stars work, we can infer how much mass there is in stars in these objects.
  2. We can measure how they’re moving, knowing whether-and-how they’re gravitationally bound. From gravitation, we can infer how much total mass there is in these objects.

So now we ask the crucial question: do these two numbers match, and if so, how well?

Image credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Postman and D. Coe (Space Telescope Science Institute), and the CLASH team, via

Not only do they not match, they’re not even close! If you compute the amount of mass present in stars, you get a number, and if you compute the amount of mass that gravitation tells us must be there, you get a number that’s 50 times greater. This is true regardless of whether you look at small galaxies, large galaxies or groups or clusters of galaxies.

Well, that tells us something important: either whatever’s making up 98% of the mass of the Universe isn’t stars, or our understanding of gravitation is wrong. Let’s take a look at the first option, because we have a lot of data there.

Image credit: Chandra X-ray Obseratory / CXC, via

There could be lots of other things out there besides stars that make up the mass of galaxies and clusters, including:

  • clumps of non-luminous matter like planets, moons, moonlets, asteroids, iceballs, etc.,
  • neutral and ionized interstellar gas, dust, and plasma,
  • black holes,
  • stellar remnants like white dwarfs and neutron stars
  • and very dim stars or dwarf stars.

The thing is, we’ve measured the abundance of these objects and — in fact — the total amount of normal (i.e., made of protons, neutrons and electrons) matter in the Universe from a variety of independent lines, including the abundance of the light elements, the cosmic microwave background, the large scale structure of the Universe, and from astrophysical surveys. We’ve even tightly constrained the contribution of neutrinos; here’s what we’ve learned.

Image credit: me, created at

About 15–16% of the total amount of matter in the Universe is made up of protons, neutrons and electrons, the majority of which is in interstellar (or intergalactic) gas and plasma. There’s maybe about another 1% in the form of neutrinos, and the rest must be some type of mass that’s not made up of any particles present in the Standard Model.

That’s the dark matter problem. But it’s possible that postulating some unseen, new form of matter isn’t the solution, but that the laws of gravity on the largest scales are simply wrong. Let me walk you through a brief history of the dark matter problem, and what we’ve learned about it as time has gone on.

Image credit: Rogelio Bernal Andreo of

Large-scale structure formation — at least initially — was poorly understood. But starting in the 1930s, Fritz Zwicky began measuring the starlight coming from galaxies present in clusters, as well as how quickly the individual galaxies were moving relative to one another. He noted the huge discrepancy mentioned above between the mass present in stars and the mass that must be present to keep these large clusters bound to one another.

This work went largely ignored for about 40 years.


Image credit: 2dF GRS, via

When we started making large cosmological surveys in the 1970s, such as PSCz, their results started to indicate that in addition to Zwicky’s cluster-dynamics problems, the structure we were seeing on even larger-scales required an unseen, non-baryonic source of mass to reproduce the structures observed. (This has since been improved by surveys like 2dF, above, and SDSS.)

Also in the 1970s, Vera Rubin’s original and hugely influential work brought new attention to rotating galaxies, and the dark matter problem they showcased so thoroughly.

Images credit: Van Albada et al. (L), A. Carati, via arXiv:1111.5793 (R).

Based on what was known about the law of gravity and what was observed about the density of normal matter in galaxies, you would have expected that as you moved farther away from the center of a spinning, spiral galaxy, the stars orbiting it would slow down. This should be very similar to the phenomenon seen in the Solar System, where Mercury has the highest orbital speed, followed by Venus, then by Earth, then by Mars, etc. But what spinning galaxies show instead is that the rotational speed appears to remain constant as you move out to larger and larger distances, which tells us that eitherthere’s more mass than can be accounted for by normal matter, or that the law of gravity needs to be modified.

Image credit: The Aquarius Project / Virgo Consortium; V. Springel et al.

Dark matter was the leading proposed solution to these problems, but no one knew whether it was all baryonic or not, what its temperature properties were, and whether/how it interacted with both normal matter and itself. We had some limits and constraints on what it couldn’t do, and some early simulations that seemed promising, but nothing concretely convincing. And then the first major alternative came along.

Image credit: Stacy McGaugh, 2011, via

MOND — short for MOdified Newtonian Dynamics — was proposed in the early 1980s as a phenomenological, empirical fit to explain the rotating galaxies. It worked very well for small-scale structure (galaxy-scale), but failed on large scales in all models. It couldn’t explain galaxy clusters, it couldn’t explain large-scale structure, and it couldn’t explain the abundance of the light elements, among others.

While the galaxy dynamics people latched on to MOND because it is more successful at predicting galactic rotation curves than dark matter is, everyone else was highly skeptical, and for good reason.

Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, via, of the Twin Quasar, the very first gravitationally lensed object back in 1979.

In addition to its failures on all scales larger than that of individual galaxies, it wasn’t a viable theory of gravity. It wasn’t relativistic, meaning it couldn’t explain things like the bending of starlight due to intervening mass, gravitational time dilation or redshift, the behavior of binary pulsars, or any other relativistic, gravitational phenomena verified to occur in agreement with Einstein’s predictions. The holy grail of MOND — and what many vocal proponents of dark matter demanded, including myself — was a relativistic version that could explain the rotation curves of galaxies along with all the other successes of our current theory of gravity.

Images credit: NASA, ESA and the HST Frontier Fields team (STScI).

Earlier today, NASA released a series of images from the Hubble Space Telescope that peers farther back into the Universe’s past thanks to the phenomenon of gravitational lensing, a consequence of Einstein’s gravity, than ever before. MOND itself can’t account for this phenomenon the way it’s observed: not for any of the lensed galaxies, the multiple images, the stretched arcs or the magnitude of the light-bending.

For all of that, you need dark matter, or some source of unseen mass that isn’t made up of any of the known Standard Model particles. But that’s hardly the only line of evidence we have that disfavors alternatives to Einstein’s relativity, or even hypothetical modifications that have yet to be discovered that could reproduce MOND.

Image credit: A. Sanchez, Sparke/Gallagher CUP 2007.

Meanwhile, as the years went on, dark matter started having a huge number of cosmological successes. As the large-scale structure of the Universe went from poorly-understood to well-understood, and as the matter power spectrum (above) and fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (below) became precisely measured, dark matter was found to work wonderfully on the largest scales.

Image credits: me, using the publicly available software CMBfast, with parameters containing dark matter (left) matching the observed fluctuations, and parameters without dark matter (right) failing to do so spectacularly.

In other words, these new observations — just like those for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis — were consistent with a Universe that was composed of about five times as much dark (non-baryonic) matter as normal matter.

And then, in 2005, the supposed “smoking gun” was observed. We caught two galaxy clusters in the act of colliding, meaning that if dark matter was correct, we’d see the baryonic matter — the interstellar/intergalactic gas — colliding and heating up, while the dark matter, and hence the gravitational signal, should pass right through without slowing down. Below, you can see the X-ray data of the Bullet cluster in pink, with the gravitational lensing data overlaid in blue.

Image composite credits: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/ M.Markevitch et al.;
Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/ D.Clowe et al.;
Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.

This was a huge victory for dark matter, and an equally huge challenge to all models of modified gravity: if there were no dark matter, how would a cluster know to “separate the mass from the gas” after a collision, but not before?

Nevertheless, small-scales still posed a problem for dark matter; it still isn’t as good at explaining the rotation of individual galaxies as MOND is. And thanks to TeVeS, a relativistic version of MOND formulated by Jacob Bekenstein(R.I.P.), it looked like MOND would finally get a fair shot.

Gravitational lensing (by normal matter) and some relativistic phenomena could be explained, and there was finally a clear-cut way to distinguish between the two: find an observational test where the predictions of TeVeS and the predictions of General Relativity differed from one another! Amazingly, such a setup already exists in nature.

Image credit: Max Planck Research, via

Spinning neutron stars — stellar remnants from ultramassive stars that have gone supernova and left a solar-mass atomic nucleus behind — are tiny things, only a few kilometers in diameter. Imagine that if you will: an object 300,000times as massive as our planet, compressed down into a volume just one-hundred-millionth the size of our world! As you can imagine, gravitational fields near these guys get really intense, providing some of the most stringent strong-field tests of relativity ever.

Well, there are some instances where neutron stars have their axial “beams” pointed directly at us, so the “pulse” at us every time the neutron star completes an orbit, something that can happen up to 766 times a second for objects this small! (When this happens, the neutron stars are known aspulsars.) But in 2004, an even rarer system was discovered: a double pulsar!

Image credit: John Rowe Animations, via

Over the past decade, this system has been observed in its very tight gravitational dance, and Einstein’s General theory of Relativity has been put to the test like never before. You see, as massive bodies orbit one another in very strong gravitational fields, they ought to emit a very specific amount of gravitational radiation. Although we don’t have the technology to measure these waves directly, we do have the ability to measure how the orbits are decaying due to this emission! Michael Kramer of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy was one of the scientists working on this, and here’s what he had to say about the orbits of this system (emphasis mine):

“We discovered that this causes the orbit to shrink by 7.12 millimeters a year, with an uncertainty of nine-thousandths of a millimeter.”

What do TeVeS and General Relativity have to say about this observation?

Image credit: NASA (L), Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy / Michael Kramer, via

It agrees with Einstein’s relativity at the 99.95% level (with a 0.1% uncertainty), and — here’s the big one — rules out all physically viable incarnations of Bekenstein’s TeVeS. As scientist Norbert Wex said with unparalleled brevity,

“In our view, this refutes TeVeS.”

In fact, history’s most accurate simulation of structure formation (using General Relativity and dark matter) has just been released, and it agrees with all observations consistent to the limit of our technological capabilities. Watch the incredible video of Mark Vogelsberger and be amazed!

And with all that in mind, that’s why dark matter’s #1 competitor is no longer any competition at all. It wasn’t dogma, consensus or politics that killed it, but the observations themselves: of pulsars, of colliding clusters, of the CMB, of large-scale structure, and of gravitational lensing all together. It’s still a mystery why MOND is more successful on galaxy-scales, but until it can provide an explanation for all the other observed phenomena, it’s only a phantasm of a theory.

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